Recent fires have spawned intense interest in fuel treatment and ecological restoration activities. Scientists and land managers have been advocating these activities for years, and the recent fires have provided incentives for federal, state, and local entities to move ahead with ambitious hazard reduction and restoration projects. Recent fires also have increased public awareness about the risks and hazards of living in wild areas. The scientific basis for ecological restoration and fuel treatment activities is growing, but remains largely unsubstantiated, with isolated exceptions. Over 300 participants from all over the United States convened in Ft. Collins, Colorado, to learn from 90 oral and poster presentations.