The title of this conference, "Fire, Fuel Treatments, and Ecological Restoration: Proper Place, Appropriate Time," is indicative of a wide range of elements critically important to ecosystem management. While in general, it encompasses many attributes of a comprehensive fire management program, it is also specific to the recently emerging focus on fuel treatment and ecological restoration. This conference brings together an assembly of individuals to discuss the range of information currently available pertaining to the issues of treating hazardous fuel buildups and restoring healthy, functioning ecosystems. The enormity of these issues, the situation surrounding current and future activities, and the developing program to answer questions about these subjects cannot be overstated. These are indeed huge issues that have been developing for nearly a century and will take massive efforts, committed workforces, and large budgets to reverse the current state of both altered fuel complexes and ecosystem health and condition. So, this conference is not only timely, but significant in terms of the importance and quantity of information that has been shared and discussed here.