Fuels management is conducted in the context of the social sciences, which bring the science of the human element into the analysis. Of the social sciences, economics addresses the enhancement or improvement in the human condition by improving our ability to allocate scarce resources. The current fuels treatment situation suggests very ambitious ends in the context of limited means. Scarce resources mean that we will not have all of the fuels treatments that we would like. Therefore we will have to choose wisely among alternative treatment options. Socially desirable treatment programs will recognize both the costs and benefits of treatments to seek desired treatment levels. Further, social science investigations will reveal unintended side effects of fuels treatment policies. The challenge upon us is to combine the information on treatment standards, ecology, and technology into line with the social sciences to attain socially desirable treatment systems.