This paper presents data on early postfire tree regeneration. The data were obtained from repeated observations of recently burned forest stands along the Yukon-British Columbia border and in interior Alaska. Postfire measurements of tree density were made periodically for 20-30 years, providing direct observations of early establishment patterns in boreal forest. Recruitment rates of the dominant tree species in both study areas were highest in the first 5 years after fire, and additional net establishment was not observed after 10 years. The postfire population of spruce (Picea mariana (Mill.) BSP and Picea glauca (Moench) Voss s.l.) remained constant after the first decade in the two study areas. Populations of aspen (Populus tremuloides Michx.) and lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta Dougl. ex Loud. var. latifolia Engelm.) both declined after 10 years in mixed-species stands along the Yukon-British Columbia border. Morality rates of aspen and pine were positively correlated with their initial densities, indicating that thinning occurred as a density-dependent process. At all sites, measurements of stand density and composition made early were highly correlated with those made late in the monitoring period, indicating that patterns of stand structure initiated within a few years after fire are maintained through subsequent decades of stand development.