The subject matter of this paper is a new area in the field of pyrology (wildland fire science) in Russia, the mapping of vegetation fuels (VF). The possibility of using the VF-maps for improvement of wildland fire management is presented. A new method of surface fire prediction on the base of VF-maps is described. In the classification of vegetation fuels, some components of forest ecosystems (biogeocenoses) are used as groups and types of VF; their role and pyrological properties are taken into account in the spread and development of fire. The necessity of improving wildland fire management, especially in cases of critical fire situations, is indisputable. What is necessary for efficiently dealing with a wildfire? First of all, the behavior of the fire must be predicted. Doing this work needs a large-scale map of vegetation fuel.