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 Ecosystem Effects

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Citation: Fulé, Peter Z.; Crouse, Joseph E. ; Cocke, Allison E.; Moore, Margaret M.; Covington, W. Wallace. 2004. Changes in canopy fuels and potential fire behavior 1880-2040: Grand Canyon, Arizona. Ecological Modelling 175(3):231-248.


The authors reconstructed fuel and fire behavior variables across an elevation gradient in Grand Canyon forests to estimate the change in canopy fuels since 1880 and to project future canopy fuels and associated potential fire behavior into the near future (2040).

Citation: Mast, J. N., and J. J. Wolf. 2004. Ecotonal changes and altered tree spatial patterns in lower mixed-conifer forests, Grand Canyon National Park, Arizona, USA. Landscape Ecology, v. 19, no. 2, p. 167-180.


The authors looked at species specific patch development, establishment, and the effects of climate and/or disturbance regimes, including fire suppression, within ecotones of mixed-conifer and ponderosa pine ecosystems.

Citation: Moore, Margaret M., and David W. Huffman. 2004. Tree encroachment on meadows of the North Rim, Grand Canyon National Park, Arizona, USA. Arctic Antarctic and Alpine Research, v. 36, no. 4, p. 474-483.


The authors described the species composition, structure, and temporal patterns of tree encroachment in alpine meadow and grassland ecosystems on the North Rim of the Grand Canyon to inform management on conservation of meadow habitat.

Citation: Huebner, C. D., and J. L. Vankat. 2003. The importance of environment vs. disturbance in the vegetation mosaic of Central Arizona. Journal of Vegetation Science, v. 14, no. 1, p. 25-34.


The authors examined the relationships of environmental and disturbance variables to vegetation structure and composition to understand the relative importance of these variables to explain ecosystem structure in chaparral and woodland vegetation types.

Citation: Fule, P. Z., J. E. Crouse, T. A. Heinlein, M. M. Moore, W. W. Covington, and G. Verkamp. 2003. Mixed-severity fire regime in a high-elevation forest of Grand Canyon, Arizona, USA. Landscape Ecology, v. 18, no. 5, p. 465-485.


The authors reconstructed the spatial and temporal patterns of the fire regime on the North Rim of Grand Canyon National Park to assess how fire transitioned from surface to stand-replacing fire across aspect, elevation, and forest type.

Citation: Pollet, Jolie; Omi, Philip N. 2002. Effect of thinning and prescribed burning on crown fire severity in ponderosa pine forests. International Journal of Wildland Fire 11(1):1-10.


The authors quantitatively compared the effects of three treatments: prescribed fire, whole-tree thinning, and thinning followed by prescribed fire, and an untreated stand at four ponderosa pine sites to test each treatment’s effectiveness at reducing fire severity and crown scorch.

Citation: Fulé, Peter Z.; Covington, W. Wallace; Moore, Margaret M.; Heinlein, Thomas A.; Waltz, Amy E. M. 2002. Natural variability in forests of the Grand Canyon, USA. Journal of Biogeography 29(1):31-47.


The authors reconstructed historical forest tree structure of ponderosa pine-dominated sites in the Grand Canyon to current species composition, tree structure and regeneration. They also considered the interacting effects of climate, fire, grazing, and other disturbance on any changes in forest structure and composition.

Citation: Floyd, M. Lisa; Romme, William H.; Hanna, David D. 2000. Fire history and vegetation pattern in Mesa Verde National Park, Colorado, USA. Ecological Applications 10(6):1666-1680.


The authors reconstructed the long-term fire history of petran chaparral and piñon-juniper woodland communities in Mesa Verde National Park.

Citation: Brown, Peter M.; Kaufmann, Merrill R.; Shepperd, Wayne D. 1999. Long-term, landscape patterns of past fire events in a montane ponderosa pine forest of central Colorado. Landscape Ecology 14(6):513-532.


The authors reconstructed the fire history of a montane ponderosa pine forest stand to understand the effects of fire on the current heterogeneity of the forest structure and composition.

Citation: Barton, Andrew M. 1999. Pines versus oaks: effects of fire on the composition of Madrean forests in Arizona. Forest Ecology and Management 120(1-3):143-156.


The authors examined historical fire regimes of Madrean pine-oak communities and the effects of fire on current establishment and survivorship. They also compared the response of pine versus oak to fire, i.e. fire resistant species verses sprouting species, and their relative abundance and structure post-fire.