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Citation: Brown, Peter M.; Kaufmann, Merrill R.; Shepperd, Wayne D. 1999. Long-term, landscape patterns of past fire events in a montane ponderosa pine forest of central Colorado. Landscape Ecology 14(6):513-532.

Summary:

The authors reconstructed the fire history of a montane ponderosa pine forest stand to understand the effects of fire on the current heterogeneity of the forest structure and composition.



Citation: Barton, Andrew M. 1999. Pines versus oaks: effects of fire on the composition of Madrean forests in Arizona. Forest Ecology and Management 120(1-3):143-156.

Summary:

The authors examined historical fire regimes of Madrean pine-oak communities and the effects of fire on current establishment and survivorship. They also compared the response of pine versus oak to fire, i.e. fire resistant species verses sprouting species, and their relative abundance and structure post-fire.



Citation: Fulé, Peter Z.; Covington, W. Wallace; Moore, Margaret M. 1997. Determining reference conditions for ecosystem management of southwestern ponderosa pine forests. Ecological Applications 7(3):895-908.

Summary:

The authors reconstructed the fire regime and forest structure of a southwestern ponderosa pine forest prior to Euro-American settlement to determine a set of reference conditions as a baseline for ecosystem management.



Citation: Grissino-Mayer, Henri D.; Swetnam, Thomas W. 1997. Multi-century history of wildfire in the ponderosa pine forests of El Malpais National Monument. New Mexico Bureau of Mines and Mineral Resources Bulletin 156:163-171.

Summary:

The authors reconstructed the fire regime and forest structure of a southwestern ponderosa pine forest prior to Euro-American settlement within the unique landscape of the El Malpais National Monument to determine a set of reference conditions as a baseline for ecosystem management.



Citation: Covington, W. W., and M. M. Moore. 1994. Southwestern ponderosa forest structure: changes since Euro-American settlement. Journal of Forestry, v. 92, no. 1, p. 39-47.

Summary:

The authors sampled the structure and composition of a ponderosa pine forest stand along a soil type and topographic gradient to assess changes since Euro-American settlement. The authors also simulated the future trajectory of the stand using ECOSIM through the year 2027.



Citation: White, M. A., and J. L. Vankat. 1993. Middle and high elevation coniferous forest communities of the North Rim region of Grand Canyon National Park, Arizona, USA. Vegetatio, v. 109, p. 161-174.

Summary:

The authors examined the structure and composition of forest stands along environmental gradients in Grand Canyon National Park to classify forest communities and determine what potential changes to structure and composition occurred in these stands following Euro-American settlement.



Citation: Swetnam, Thomas W.; Lynch, Ann M. 1993. Multicentury, regional-scale patterns of western spruce budworm outbreaks. Ecological Monographs 63(4):399-424.

Summary:

The authors reconstructed spruce budworm infestations using tree ring chronologies from the year 1690 to present and examined the potential relationships between historic spruce budworm infestations and human land use changes and climate variation.



Citation: Savage, Melissa; Swetnam, Thomas W. 1990. Early 19th-century fire decline following sheep pasturing in a navajo ponderosa pine forest. Ecology 71(6):2374-2378.

Summary:

The authors documented the fire history of a ponderosa pine forest stand to understand the effects of land use change on fire frequency, and the subsequent effects of fire decline on the forest structure.



Citation: White, Alan S. 1985. Presettlement regeneration patterns in a southwestern ponderosa pine stand. Ecology 66(2):589-594.

Summary:

The author analyzed the age structure and spatial distribution of an old-growth ponderosa pine stand to determine patterns of historic regeneration.