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Southeastern France is the most wildfire prone region of the country, covering 14.7 percent of its land area-entire country, is the region most affected by wildfires, with 55 percent of the total number of fires recorded in the whole country from 2006 to 2008. It is a typical…
Person:
Year: 2015
Type: Document
Source: FRAMES
Topic(s): Climate, Emissions and Smoke, Fire Behavior, Fire Ecology, Fire Occurrence, Fuels, Social Science, Weather, Wildland-Urban Interface (WUI)
Region(s): International
Keywords: France, fire management, political consequences, social consequences, fire regimes, large fires

Prescribed burns of winter wheat stubble and Kentucky bluegrass fields in northern Idaho and eastern Washington states (U.S.A.) were sampled using ground-, aerostat-, airplane-, and laboratory-based measurement platforms to determine emission factors, compare methods, and…
Person:
Year: 2017
Type: Document
Source: FRAMES
Topic(s): Emissions and Smoke, Prescribed Fire
Region(s): Northern Rockies, Northwest
Keywords: agricultural burning, emission factors, wheat, bluegrass, Kentucky bluegrass, Poa pratensis, PM - particulate matter, VOC - volatile organic compounds, PAH - polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons, PCDD - polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins, PCDF - polychlorinated dibenzofurans, PM2.5, organic carbon, modified combustion action, Washington, Idaho

Background: Cardiovascular health effects of fine particulate matter (PM2.5) exposure from wildfire smoke are neither definitive nor consistent with PM2.5 from other air pollution sources. Non-comparability among wildfire health studies limits research conclusions. Methods: We…
Person:
Year: 2016
Type: Document
Source: FRAMES, TTRS
Topic(s): Emissions and Smoke, Fire Effects, Hazard and Risk, Safety
Region(s): Southern
Keywords: North Carolina, peat fires, cardiopulmonary, health effects, PM - particulate matter, PM2.5, respiratory effects, cardiovascular effects, hypertension, syndromic surveillance, public health, smoke effects, wildfires, health factors, fire management, forest management, smoke management

The biological effect of particles on respiratory epithelial cells involves, in part, the generation of an oxidative stress and a consequent cascade of reactions culminating in inflammatory mediator release. Whether there is either an immediate, transitory activation or a…
Person:
Year: 2015
Type: Document
Source: FRAMES
Topic(s): Emissions and Smoke, Safety
Region(s): Alaska, California, Eastern, Great Basin, Hawaii, Northern Rockies, Northwest, Rocky Mountain, Southern, Southwest, National
Keywords: air pollution, inflammation, lung diseases, oxidants, PM - particulate matter, air quality

Background: In June 2008, burning peat deposits produced haze and air pollution far in excess of National Ambient Air Quality Standards, encroaching on rural communities of eastern North Carolina. Although the association of mortality and morbidity with exposure to urban air…
Person:
Year: 2011
Type: Document
Source: FRAMES
Topic(s): Emissions and Smoke, Safety
Region(s): Southern
Keywords: cardiopulmonary, health effects, wildfire, smoke exposure, satellite data, syndromic surveillance

Background: Characterizing factors which determine susceptibility to air pollution is an important step in understanding the distribution of risk in a population and is critical for setting appropriate policies. We evaluate general and specific measures of community health as…
Person:
Year: 2012
Type: Document
Source: FRAMES
Topic(s): Climate, Emissions and Smoke, Fire Effects, Safety
Region(s): Southern
Keywords: North Carolina, asthma, air pollution, air quality, heart failure, climate change, wildfires, disparities and susceptibility, public health

Background: Emissions from a large peat fire in North Carolina in 2008 were associated with increased hospital admissions for asthma and the rate of heart failure in the exposed population. Peat fires often produce larger amounts of smoke and last longer than forest fires,…
Person:
Year: 2014
Type: Document
Source: FRAMES
Topic(s): Emissions and Smoke, Models, Monitoring and Inventory, Safety
Region(s): Southern
Keywords: North Carolina, peat fires, toxicity, cardiopulmonary, PM - particulate matter, lung inflammation, wildfires, cardiac perfusion

Wildland firefighters in the United States are occupationally exposed to high levels of woodsmoke. Results from experimental studies show that exposure to woodsmoke induces inflammation. A study was conducted to investigate the effect of occupational woodsmoke exposure on…
Person:
Year: 2013
Type: Document
Source: FRAMES
Topic(s): Emissions and Smoke, Prescribed Fire, Safety
Region(s): Southern
Keywords: inflammation, firefighter safety, firefighter health, smoke exposure, PM2.5, CO - carbon monoxide, biomarkers, wood smoke, interleukin-8, blood sample

The article focuses on chemistry and toxicity of emissions generated from diesel and biomass combustion. Topics discussed include concerns pertaining to air quality of different urban areas across the globe, association of long-term exposure to particulate matter (PM) with…
Person:
Year: 2015
Type: Document
Source: FRAMES
Topic(s): Emissions and Smoke, Monitoring and Inventory, Safety
Region(s): Alaska, California, Eastern, Great Basin, Hawaii, Northern Rockies, Northwest, Rocky Mountain, Southern, Southwest, National
Keywords: DEP - diesel engine exhaust, biomass burning, biomass combustion, toxicity, chemistry, organic compounds, PM - particulate matter, lung inflammation, wildfires, aerosols

The biological effect of an inorganic particle (i.e., silica) can be associated with a disruption in cell iron homeostasis. Organic compounds included in particles originating from combustion processes can also complex sources of host cell iron to disrupt metal homeostasis. We…
Person:
Year: 2015
Type: Document
Source: FRAMES
Topic(s): Emissions and Smoke, Safety
Region(s): Eastern
Keywords: wood smoke, experimental burn, human health, inorganic particle, particles, humic acid, statistical analysis

Objectives: Human exposure to wood smoke particles (WSP) impacts on human health through changes in indoor air quality, exposures from wild fires, burning of biomass and air pollution. This investigation tested the postulate that healthy volunteers exposed to WSP would…
Person:
Year: 2012
Type: Document
Source: FRAMES
Topic(s): Emissions and Smoke, Fire Effects, Safety
Region(s): Alaska, California, Eastern, Great Basin, Hawaii, Northern Rockies, Northwest, Rocky Mountain, Southern, Southwest, National
Keywords: wood smoke, particles, PM - particulate matter, biomass burning, human health, air pollution, pulmonary inflammation, health impacts, wildfires

A new WRF-CMAQ two-way coupled model was developed to provide a pathway for chemical feedbacks from the air quality model to the meteorological model. The essence of this interaction is focused on the direct radiative effects of scattering and absorbing aerosols in the…
Person:
Year: 2016
Type: Document
Source: FRAMES
Topic(s): Emissions and Smoke, Fire Occurrence, Models, Monitoring and Inventory
Region(s): California
Keywords: WRF - Weather Research and Forecasting, CMAQ - Community Multiscale Air Quality Modeling System, air quality, coupled models, aerosols, AOD - aerosol optical depth, MODIS - Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer

To understand the effect of leaf-surface pesticides on emissions of PCDD/F during biomass burns, nine combustion experiments simulating the open burning of biomass were conducted. Needles and branches of Pinus taeda (Loblolly pine) were sprayed with the pesticide 2,4-…
Person:
Year: 2012
Type: Document
Source: FRAMES
Topic(s): Emissions and Smoke
Region(s): Southern
Keywords: loblolly pine, Pinus taeda, biomass burning, 2,4-D, PCDD - polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins, PCDF - polychlorinated dibenzofurans, experimental burn, pesticides

Aerosol optical properties of biomass burning emissions are critical parameters determining how these emissions impact the Earth's climate. Despite their importance, field measurements of aerosol optical properties from fires remain scarce. Aerosol emissions from prescribed…
Person:
Year: 2016
Type: Document
Source: FRAMES
Topic(s): Emissions and Smoke, Prescribed Fire
Region(s): Southern
Keywords: PM - particulate matter, black carbon, aerosol optical properties, PM2.5, emission factors, South Carolina, Florida

Both long duration (>6 h) and high temperature (up to 139 °C) sampling efforts were conducted using ambient air sampling methods to determine if either high volume throughput or higher than ambient air sampling temperatures resulted in loss of target polychlorinated…
Person:
Year: 2013
Type: Document
Source: FRAMES
Topic(s): Emissions and Smoke, Monitoring and Inventory
Region(s): Alaska, California, Eastern, Great Basin, Hawaii, Northern Rockies, Northwest, Rocky Mountain, Southern, Southwest, National
Keywords: air quality, PCDD - polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins, PCDF - polychlorinated dibenzofurans, open burning, quality control, air samples

Loblolly pine (Pinus taeda) was combusted at different charge sizes, fuel moisture, and chlorine content to determine the effect on emissions of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDDs/Fs) as well as copollutants CO, PM, and total hydrocarbons…
Person:
Year: 2011
Type: Document
Source: FRAMES
Topic(s): Emissions and Smoke, Fuels, Prescribed Fire
Region(s): Southern
Keywords: biomass burning, combustion, fuel moisture, air quality, C - carbon, chemistry, hydrocarbons, sampling, toxicity, loblolly pine, Pinus taeda, North Carolina, fire management, fuel management, SFP - Southern Fire Portal, PCDD - polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins, PCDF - polychlorinated dibenzofurans, PM - particulate matter

Size-resolved aerosol composition measurements were conducted at a coastal site in central California during the Nucleation in California Experiment (NiCE) between July and August of 2013. The site is just east of ship and marine emission sources and is also influenced by…
Person:
Year: 2015
Type: Document
Source: FRAMES
Topic(s): Aquatic, Emissions and Smoke, Fire Effects
Region(s): California
Keywords: biomass burning, aerosol, composition, soil

In this study, volatile and semi-volatile organic compound (VOCs and SVOCs) mass emission factors were determined from laboratory peat fire experiments. The peat samples originated from two National Wildlife Refuges on the coastal plain of North Carolina, U.S.A. Gas- and…
Person:
Year: 2015
Type: Document
Source: FRAMES
Topic(s): Emissions and Smoke
Region(s): Southern
Keywords: peat, North Carolina, VOC - volatile organic compounds, biomass burning, organic soil, emission factors, air pollutants, organic carbon, PAH - polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons

Peat cores collected from two locations in eastern North Carolina (NC, USA) were burned in a laboratory facility to characterize emissions during simulated field combustion. Particle and gas samples were analyzed to quantify emission factors for particulate matter (PM2.5),…
Person:
Year: 2016
Type: Document
Source: FRAMES
Topic(s): Emissions and Smoke
Region(s): Southern
Keywords: gas emissions, particle emissions, peat, North Carolina, laboratory fires, PCDD - polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins, PCDF - polychlorinated dibenzofurans, PAH - polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, PM2.5, CO - carbon monoxide, carbon

The Stockholm Convention on Persistent Organic Pollutants includes in its aims the minimisation of unintentional releases of polychlorinated dibenzo-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/PCDF) and dioxin like PCB (dl-PCB) to the environment. Development and implementation of policies…
Person:
Year: 2012
Type: Document
Source: FRAMES
Topic(s): Emissions and Smoke
Region(s): Eastern, Southern, International
Keywords: biomass burning, cropland fires, wildfires, air quality, ash, pollution, toxicity, fire management, forest management, smoke management, croplands, PCDD - polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins, PCDF - polychlorinated dibenzofurans, persistent organic pollutants, sugarcane burning, forest fires, laboratory fires, Australia, Florida, North Carolina, Minnesota, France

Release of PCDD and PCDF from biomass combustion such as forest and agricultural crop fires has been nominated as an important source for these chemicals despite minimal characterisation. Available emission factors that have been experimentally determined in laboratory and field…
Person:
Year: 2011
Type: Document
Source: FRAMES
Topic(s): Emissions and Smoke, Fire Effects, Monitoring and Inventory
Region(s): Northwest, Southern
Keywords: PCDD - polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins, PCDF - polychlorinated dibenzofurans, persistent organic pollutants, bushfire, forest fires, sugarcane burning, laboratory fires

Two specific fires from 2011 are tracked for local to regional scale contribution to ozone (O3) and fine particulate matter (PM2.5) using a freely available regulatory modeling system that includes the BlueSky wildland fire emissions tool, Spare Matrix Operator Kernel Emissions…
Person:
Year: 2016
Type: Document
Source: FRAMES
Topic(s): Emissions and Smoke, Fire Effects, Models, Prescribed Fire
Region(s): Rocky Mountain, Southwest
Keywords: Wallow Fire, Flint Hills, ozone, PM2.5, air quality, wildfire, photochemistry, BlueSky Modeling Framework, smoke models, Spare Matrix Operator Kernel Emissions (SMOKE) model, WRF - Weather Research and Forecasting, CMAQ - Community Multiscale Air Quality Modeling System

Emissions from prescribed burns of a managed longleaf pine (Pinus palustris) forest and grass/savanna fields in western Florida were measured by simultaneous aerial and ground sampling. Results were compared with measurements made in an open burn laboratory test facility using…
Person:
Year: 2015
Type: Document
Source: FRAMES
Topic(s): Emissions and Smoke, Monitoring and Inventory, Prescribed Fire
Region(s): Southern
Keywords: Pinus palustris, longleaf pine, Florida, grasslands, pine savanna, black carbon, PAH - polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons, brown carbon, PCDD - polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins, VOC - volatile organic compounds, PM2.5, PM - particulate matter, organic carbon

Aerial- and ground-sampled emissions from three prescribed forest burns in the southeastern U.S. were compared to emissions from laboratory open burn tests using biomass from the same locations. A comprehensive array of emissions, including PM2.5, black carbon (BC), brown carbon…
Person:
Year: 2013
Type: Document
Source: FRAMES
Topic(s): Emissions and Smoke, Monitoring and Inventory, Prescribed Fire
Region(s): Southern
Keywords: PM2.5, black carbon, brown carbon, carbon dioxide, VOC - volatile organic compounds, PCDD - polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins, PCDF - polychlorinated dibenzofurans, biomass burning

An aerostat-borne instrument and sampling method was developed to characterize air samples from area sources, such as emissions from open burning. The 10 kg battery-powered instrument system, termed “the Flyer”, is lofted with a helium-filled aerostat of 4 m nominal diameter and…
Person:
Year: 2011
Type: Document
Source: FRAMES
Topic(s): Emissions and Smoke, Monitoring and Inventory
Region(s): Alaska, California, Eastern, Great Basin, Hawaii, Northern Rockies, Northwest, Rocky Mountain, Southern, Southwest, National
Keywords: air samples, open burning, emission factors, detonation, CO2 - carbon dioxide, SVOC - semi-volatile organic compounds, VOC - volatile organic compounds, PM - particulate matter