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Understanding the effect of wildfire smoke exposure on human health represents a unique interdisciplinary challenge to the scientific community. Population health studies indicate that wildfire smoke is a risk to human health and increases the healthcare burden of smoke-impacted…
Person:
Year: 2017
Type: Document
Source: FRAMES
Topic(s): Emissions and Smoke, Fire Effects, Models
Region(s): Alaska, California, Eastern, Great Basin, Hawaii, Northern Rockies, Northwest, Rocky Mountain, Southern, Southwest, National
Keywords: wildfires, particulates, air quality, exposure, human health, inhalation irritants, toxicology, literature review

Recent growth in the frequency and severity of US wildfires has led to more wildfire smoke and increased public exposure to harmful air pollutants. Populations exposed to wildfire smoke experience a variety of negative health impacts, imposing economic costs on society. However…
Person:
Year: 2017
Type: Document
Source: FRAMES
Topic(s): Economics, Emissions and Smoke, Fire Effects
Region(s): California, Great Basin, Northern Rockies, Northwest, Rocky Mountain, Southwest
Keywords: public health, benefit transfer, protocol, fire frequency, air pollution

Reliable estimates of pre-burn biomass and fuel consumption are important to estimate wildland fire emissions and assist in prescribed burn planning. We present empirical models for predicting fuel consumption in natural fuels from 60 prescribed fires in ponderosa pine-dominated…
Person:
Year: 2017
Type: Document
Source: FRAMES
Topic(s): Emissions and Smoke, Fuels, Models, Prescribed Fire
Region(s): Northwest, Southern
Keywords: biomass, fuel consumption, Douglas-fir, Pseudotsuga menziesii, loblolly pine, Pinus taeda, longleaf pine, Pinus palustris, Pinus ponderosa, ponderosa pine, southern pine forests, smoke management, wildland fire

The time-mean and time-varying smoke and velocity structure of a wildfire convective plume is examined using a high-resolution scanning Doppler lidar. The mean plume is shown to exhibit the archetypal form of a bent-over plume in a crosswind, matching the well-established Briggs…
Person:
Year: 2017
Type: Document
Source: FRAMES
Topic(s): Emissions and Smoke, Fire Behavior
Region(s): California
Keywords: plume, convection plume, turbulence, convection, entrainment, updraft, wildfires, forest fires, heat flux, LiDAR - Light Detection and Ranging, El Portal fire

Although a many studies concerning crop residue burning have been conducted, the influence of crop residue burning on local PM2.5 concentrations remains unclear. The number of crop residue burning spots was the highest in Heilongjiang province and we extracted crop residue…
Person:
Year: 2017
Type: Document
Source: FRAMES
Topic(s): Emissions and Smoke, Fire Effects
Region(s): International
Keywords: crop residues, cropland residue burning, PM2.5, PM - particulate matter, remote sensing, China, air pollution

Smoke emission models require a number of assumptions regarding turbulent transfer of gasses and particulates within and above the forest canopy. Some of these assumptions as well as model predictions can be evaluated using micrometeorological measurements during fires. However…
Person:
Year: 2016
Type: Document
Source: FRAMES
Topic(s): Emissions and Smoke, Fuels, Models, Prescribed Fire
Region(s): Eastern
Keywords: New Jersey, New Jersey Pinelands, energy balance, fuel consumption, pine barrens

The goal of this paper is to evaluate the accuracy of the commonly used ozone (O3) instrument (the ultraviolet (UV) photometer) against a Federal Reference Method (Nitric Oxide –chemiluminescence) for ozone measurement in wildfire smoke plumes. We carried out simultaneous ozone…
Person:
Year: 2017
Type: Document
Source: FRAMES
Topic(s): Emissions and Smoke, Fire Effects
Region(s): Northwest
Keywords: O3 - ozone, UV photometer, NO-chemiluminescence, wildfires, smoke plumes, Oregon

The Southern Annular Mode (SAM) is the main driver of climate variability at mid to high latitudes in the Southern Hemisphere, affecting wildfire activity, which in turn pollutes the air and contributes to human health problems and mortality, and potentially provides strong…
Person:
Year: 2017
Type: Document
Source: FRAMES
Topic(s): Climate, Emissions and Smoke, Fire Behavior, Fire History
Region(s): International
Keywords: fire scars, AAO - Antarctic Oscillation, climate modes, warming, synchrony, South America

Canada is expected to see an increase in fire risk under future climate projections. Large fires, such as that near Fort McMurray, Alberta in 2016, can be devastating to the communities affected. Understanding the role of human emissions in the occurrence of such extreme fire…
Person:
Year: 2017
Type: Document
Source: FRAMES
Topic(s): Emissions and Smoke, Fire Occurrence, Hazard and Risk
Region(s): International
Keywords: Canada, extremes, Alberta, event attribution, CFFDRS - Canadian Forest Fire Danger Rating System

This report highlights selected accomplishments by the USDA Forest Service Rocky Mountain Research Station's Wildland Fire and Fuels Research & Development projects in support of the National Fire Plan from 2008 through 2012. These projects are examples of the broad range of…
Person:
Year: 2013
Type: Document
Source: FRAMES
Topic(s): Emissions and Smoke, Fire Behavior, Fire Occurrence, Fuels, Intelligence, Mapping, Models, Wildland-Urban Interface (WUI)
Region(s): California, Great Basin, Northern Rockies, Rocky Mountain, Southwest
Keywords: NFP - National Fire Plan, fire science, fire management, fire research, science delivery

Fire frequency, extent, and size exhibit a strong linkage with climate conditions and play a vital role in the climate system. Previous studies have shown that the frequency of large fires in the western United States increased significantly since the mid-1980s due to climate…
Person:
Year: 2015
Type: Document
Source: FRAMES
Topic(s): Climate, Emissions and Smoke, Fire Behavior, Fire History, Fire Occurrence, Intelligence, Models
Region(s): California, Eastern, Great Basin, Northern Rockies, Northwest, Rocky Mountain, Southern, Southwest
Keywords: wildfires, fire frequency, fire intensity, fire size, C - carbon, climate change, remote sensing, fire management, forest management, smoke management, Dynamic Land Ecosystem Model, fire severity, burned area

Introduction: Wildland fires degrade air quality and adversely affect human health. A growing body of epidemiology literature reports increased rates of emergency departments, hospital admissions and premature deaths from wildfire smoke exposure. Objective: Our research aimed to…
Person:
Year: 2018
Type: Document
Source: FRAMES
Topic(s): Economics, Emissions and Smoke, Fire Effects, Models
Region(s): Alaska, California, Eastern, Great Basin, Hawaii, Northern Rockies, Northwest, Rocky Mountain, Southern, Southwest, National
Keywords: health impacts, source apportionment, PM2.5, PM - particulate matter, CMAQ - Community Multiscale Air Quality Modeling System, ozone, wildland fires, wildfires, human health, air quality, literature review, morbidity, mortality

The Great Dismal Swamp (GDS) National Wildlife Refuge delivers multiple ecosystem services, including air quality and human health via fire mitigation. Our analysis estimates benefits of this service through its potential to reduce catastrophic wildfire related impacts on the…
Person:
Year: 2017
Type: Document
Source: FRAMES
Topic(s): Economics, Emissions and Smoke, Fire Effects, Fire Prevention
Region(s): Southern
Keywords: fire mitigation, ecosystem services, Virginia, wildfires, human health, geospatial data, Great Dismal Swamp National Wildlife Refuge, air quality

Biological activity and the physical environment regulate greenhouse gas fluxes (CH4, N2O and NO) from upland soils. Wildfires are known to alter these factors such that we collected daily weather records, fire return intervals, or specific fire years, and soil data of four…
Person:
Year: 2012
Type: Document
Source: FRAMES
Topic(s): Emissions and Smoke, Fire Effects, Weather
Region(s): Rocky Mountain
Keywords: fire regimes, fire suppression, fire exclusion, Colorado Front Range, trace gases, soil, CH4 - methane, N2O - nitrous oxide, nitric oxide, nitrification, Pinus ponderosa, ponderosa pine, DAYCENT

The purpose of this study was to examine how exposure to two different types of plant-derived smoke (grass smoke and wood smoke) affects the germination of common native and invasive plants found in the northern Great Plains. First, we hypothesize that smoke (both grass-derived…
Person:
Year: 2017
Type: Document
Source: FRAMES
Topic(s): Emissions and Smoke, Fire Ecology
Region(s): Rocky Mountain
Keywords: germination, vegetation dynamics, grasses

Biomass burning emissions emit a significant amount of trace gases and aerosols and can affect atmospheric chemistry and radiative forcing for hundreds or thousands of kilometres downwind. They can also contribute to exceedances of air quality standards and have negative impacts…
Person:
Year: 2017
Type: Document
Source: FRAMES
Topic(s): Emissions and Smoke, Fire Effects
Region(s): Northwest, International
Keywords: Siberia, wildfires, air quality, smoke plume, MODIS - Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer, O3 - ozone, PM2.5, Canada, British Columbia, fire plumes

Particulate matter emissions from wildfires affect climate, weather and air quality. However, existing global and regional aerosol emission estimates differ by a factor of up to 4 between different methods. Using a novel approach, we estimate daily total particulate matter (TPM…
Person:
Year: 2017
Type: Document
Source: FRAMES
Topic(s): Emissions and Smoke, Fire Effects, Models, Monitoring and Inventory
Region(s): California, Eastern, Great Basin, Northern Rockies, Northwest, Rocky Mountain, Southern, Southwest, International
Keywords: Canada, PM - particulate matter, wildfires, aerosols, HYSPLIT - Hybrid Single-Particle Lagrangian Integrated Trajectory, MODIS - Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer, AOT - aerosol optical thickness, boreal forests, temperate forests, air quality

US surface O3 responds to varying global-to-regional precursor emissions, climate, and extreme weather, with implications for designing effective air quality control policies. We examine these conjoined processes with observations and global chemistry-climate model (GFDL-AM3)…
Person:
Year: 2017
Type: Document
Source: FRAMES
Topic(s): Climate, Emissions and Smoke, Fire Effects, Models, Weather
Region(s): Alaska, California, Eastern, Great Basin, Hawaii, Northern Rockies, Northwest, Rocky Mountain, Southern, Southwest, International, National
Keywords: Asia, wildfires, O3 - ozone, ozone, surface ozone, climate change, isoprene emissions, air quality

Biomass burning (BB) is one of the most important contributors to atmospheric aerosols on a global scale, and wildfires are a large source of emissions that impact regional air quality and global climate. As part of the Biomass Burning Observation Project (BBOP) field campaign…
Person:
Year: 2017
Type: Document
Source: FRAMES
Topic(s): Emissions and Smoke, Fire Effects, Monitoring and Inventory
Region(s): Northwest
Keywords: wildfires, biomass burning, aerosols, organic aerosols, chemistry, organic compounds, mass spectrometry

The vast majority of Australia's fires occur in the tropical north of the continent during the dry season. These fires are a significant source of aerosol and cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) in the region, providing a unique opportunity to investigate the biomass burning aerosol…
Person:
Year: 2017
Type: Document
Source: FRAMES
Topic(s): Emissions and Smoke, Monitoring and Inventory
Region(s): International
Keywords: Australia, savanna fires, aerosols, CCN - cloud condensation nuclei , biomass burning, BBA - biomass burning aerosol, Northern Territory of Australia, diurnal

Exposure to wildland fire smoke is associated with negative effects on human health. However, these effects are poorly quantified. Accurately attributing health endpoints to wildland fire smoke requires determining the locations, concentrations, and durations of smoke events.…
Person:
Year: 2017
Type: Document
Source: FRAMES
Topic(s): Emissions and Smoke, Models, Monitoring and Inventory, Social Science
Region(s): California, Great Basin, Northern Rockies, Northwest, Rocky Mountain, Southwest
Keywords: social media, Facebook, smoke exposure, PM2.5, MODIS - Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer, WRF-Chem, wildfires, air quality, LFS - landscape fire smoke, PM - particulate matter, regression models, Google Trends

The first observations of smoke-induced density currents originating from large wildfires are presented. Using a novel mobile Doppler lidar and additional in situ measurements, we document a deep (~ 2 km) smoke-filled density current that propagates more than 25 km at speeds up…
Person:
Year: 2015
Type: Document
Source: FRAMES
Topic(s): Emissions and Smoke, Fire Effects, Monitoring and Inventory
Region(s): California
Keywords: cold smoke, Doppler lidar, smoke dispersion, wildfires, density current

Forest fire emissions have a strong impact on the concentrations of trace gases and aerosols in the atmosphere. In order to quantify the influence of boreal forest fire emissions on the atmospheric composition, the fire seasons of 1997 and 1998 are compared in this paper. Fire…
Person:
Year: 2004
Type: Document
Source: FRAMES
Topic(s): Emissions and Smoke, Fire Effects, Fire Occurrence, Mapping, Models
Region(s): International
Keywords: boreal forests, wildfires, Siberia, Canada, ATSR - Along Track Scanning Radiometer, burned area, aerosols, transport model, CO - carbon monoxide

Forest fire emissions have a strong impact on the concentrations of trace gases and aerosols in the atmosphere. In order to quantify the influence of boreal forest fire emissions on the atmospheric composition, the fire seasons of 1997 and 1998 are compared in this paper. Fire…
Person:
Year: 2016
Type: Document
Source: FRAMES
Topic(s): Climate, Emissions and Smoke, Models, Weather
Region(s): California, Eastern, Great Basin, Northern Rockies, Northwest, Rocky Mountain, Southern, Southwest
Keywords: ENSO - El Nino Southern Oscillation, precipitation, N - nitrogen, nitrogen deposition, climate variability, wavelet analysis

Smoke caused by wildland fire events is an important public health issue, involving major risks to the health of people and the environment. Smoke from wildland fires can travel hundreds of kilometers, affecting air quality far from the flames. Through a partnership with Health…
Person:
Year: 2015
Type: Document
Source: FRAMES
Topic(s): Emissions and Smoke, Safety
Region(s): International
Keywords: Canada, Manitoba, air quality, AQHI - Air Quality Health Index, wildfires, public health, heat