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The current study was undertaken to evaluate the effect of smoke on forced expiratory volumes and airway responsiveness in wildland fire fighters during a season of active fire fighting. Sixty-three seasonal and full-time wildland fire fighters from...

Person: Liu, Tager, Balmes, Harrison
Year: 1992
Type: Document
Source: FRAMES

PLUMP is a general-purpose, one-dimensional plume rise model for wildfire and prescribed fire planning. It calculates the characteristics of fire plumes, including vertical velocity, water content, excess temperature, rain, and ice. The model can also...

Person: Latham
Year: 1994
Type: Document
Source: FRAMES

A nylon tent designed for firefighters was placed in a smoky environment in a wind tunnel. The close knit fabric screened out 95 percent of the particulate matter but none of the gases in the smoke. There was no oxygen depletion in the tent when a...

Person: Blakely
Year: 1994
Type: Document
Source: FRAMES

Severe fires in chaparral watersheds subject to air pollution from metropolitan Los Angeles mobilized accumulated nitrogen and caused streamwater to be polluted with nitrate at concentrations exceeding the Federal Water Quality Standard. Streamwater...

Person: Riggan, Lockwood, Jacks, Colver, Weirich, DeBano, Brass
Year: 1994
Type: Document
Source: FRAMES

To demonstrate the usefulness of active remote-sensing systems in observing forest fire plume behavior, we studied two fires, one using a 3.2-cm-wavelength Doppler radar, and one more extensively, using Doppler lidar. Both instruments observed the...

Person: Banta, Olivier, Holloway, Kropfli, Bartram, Cupp, Post
Year: 1992
Type: Document
Source: FRAMES

Emission factors for several trace gases were determined using airborne measurements from 13 biomass fires in North America. Emissions of methane (CH4), nonmethane hydrocarbons (NMHC), hydrogen (H2) and ammonia (NH3) were found to be positively...

Person: Laursen, Hobbs, Radke, Rasmussen
Year: 1992
Type: Document
Source: FRAMES

The major condensible products (-45ºC) from smoldering combustion of ponderosa pine sapwood have been identified and quantified. Methylene chloride extracts of the condensate, as well as nonextracted condensate, were analyzed by gas chromatography/mass...

Person: McKenzie, Hao, Richards, Ward
Year: 1994
Type: Document
Source: FRAMES

Fire behavior on a 2 ha fire, inferred from physical evidence observed one week after the fire, was compared with fire behavior estimates obtained using the BEHAVE fire behavior prediction system and fuel measurements in Imperata cylindrica (Alang-...

Person: Pickford, Suharti, Wibowo
Year: 1992
Type: Document
Source: FRAMES, TTRS

The performance of internal combustion engines used in fire fighting equipment can be affected by the fireground ambient conditions. Both gasoline (SI) and diesel (CI) engines can suffer significant power losses due to high temperatures and reduced...

Person: Carter, Milton
Year: 1994
Type: Document
Source: FRAMES

A model for the plume above a line fire in a cross wind is constructed. This problem is shown to reduce to numerically solving a system of 6 coupled ordinary differential equations for given initial conditions that depend upon the fire characteristics...

Person: Mercer, Weber
Year: 1994
Type: Document
Source: FRAMES