Principal short-term findings of the national Fire and Fire Surrogate study by theme and major ecosystem component

    All of the numbers in this table represent publications.
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    Theme Finding Relevant treatments Trees Understory Fuels Soils Bark beetles Vertebrate biodiversity Invertebrates fungal biodiversity
    Fire vs. surrogate For the great majority of variables, mechanical treatments did not serve as surrogates for fire, with mechanical treatments resulting in effects similar to untreated controls for most ecological variables, while the burn and mechanical + burn treatments resulted in similar effects Fire vs. no fire 2, 3, 21, 34, 52-54, 79-82, 86, 88, 109, 137, 171, 206 4, 23, 24, 35-39, 55, 90-93, 109, 110, 172 26, 40, 56, 58, 94-97, 111, 112, 146, 147, 162, 174 10, 41-43, 50, 59, 61, 99, 101-103, 115-118, 132, 149, 163, 164, 176-178, 180 46, 51, 130, 131, 206 11, 12, 27, 44, 45, 63, 78, 104, 119, 122, 123, 125-127, 142, 152, 155-157, 165, 181, 182, 184 19, 28, 64, 65, 106, 128, 129, 158, 159, 166, 167, 206
    Effect size Ecological effects of fire and fire surrogate treatments were generally subtle and transient, suggesting that these kinds of treatments resemble the magnitude of historical disturbances in seasonally dry forest ecosystems  All 1-3, 21, 22, 34, 48, 52-54, 79, 81, 82, 84-86,  109, 135-137, 171 4, 5, 24, 36- 39, 55, 67, 89-93, 109, 110, 144, 172 6-8, 25, 26, 49, 56-58, 68, 70, 95- 98, 111-114, 148, 162, 174,  10, 41, 43, 50, 59-61, 71, 99-103, 115, 117, 118, 132, 163, 164, 176-180 46, 51, 74, 130, 131 12, 44, 63, 72, 75- 78, 121, 139-143, 150- 152, 154-157, 165, 181, 183 19, 28, 64, 65, 73, 105, 106, 128, 129, 158-160, 166, 167
    Effect duration In most cases ecological variables tended to return to pretreatment conditions after several years, including key components of the fuel bed. All 53, 79-81, 85, 135, 161 36, 37, 39, 67, 89, 90, 110, 144, 172 26, 28, 147, 162 41, 61, 101, 115, 118, 149, 164, 175, 179, 180
    75-77, 139, 151, 182, 183 19, 64, 107, 107, 128, 167
    East vs. West Eastern sites differed from western sites in several important ways, suggesting the need to consider issues such as carbon sequestration and the frequency of repeated burns and mechanical entries. All 22
    162 175, 176


    Species adaptation Species generally responded to treatments in a manner consistent with their life history characteristics; most native species demonstrated positive responses consistent with adaptation to frequent, low intensity fire. All   24     130, 131 11, 12, 27, 44, 63, 72, 119, 123, 126, 133, 138, 140, 151,153, 181, 184 13-18, 64, 65, 73, 134