Tips and Training Materials


Tips, Tricks, and Information:

We have developed a number of tips for using BehavePlus more effectively: Tips and Tricks [PDF]

We have helped to develop materials to prepare students for Advanced Fire Behavior Calculations (S-490), including an introduction to the BehavePlus fire modeling system: Recordings and Resources [web page]

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Training Materials:

Lessons have been developed to aid users in more effectively using BehavePlus. If you are unfamiliar with BehavePlus operation, please review the four lessons in the Introduction Unit. Other lessons are generally stand-alone and should be used based on your interests and need; they are not organized into a BehavePlus "course." Some topics in the Modeling Unit consist of multiple lessons; the suggested order of these lessons is outlined on the first page of each.

The worst thing you can do is start at the top of the list and work your way to the bottom. Look for the lessons that help you build the skills and knowledge that you need right now. If topics are missing, please contact the Development Lead.

Lessons are organized according to Units.

  • Overview - General overview of BehavePlus; usually provided as a presentation.
  • Introduction – Four basic lessons provide the foundation for program operation; these lessons should be done in order.
  • Operation – These lessons cover various aspects of operation or "button pushing."
  • Modeling – These lessons describe modeling capabilities, limitations, assumptions, and sensitivity.

Overview

  • Lessons in the Overview Unit address questions such as: What is BehavePlus? What can it do? Does it suit your needs? Is there a need for you to continue with training to learn more?
  • Overview lessons are optional.
  • Select lessons to suit your specific needs or interests.

Download: Complete copy of the self-study Overview lessons with exercises and supporting material (ZIP; this file will be made available once all of the updates to the lessons have been completed). Individual lessons can be downloaded below. See the Change Log for update information. Lessons for version 5 are still available as a zip file (V5_ZIP; 14.3 MB).

 
BehavePlus Overview

Lesson Objectives:

  1. Understand the relationship of BehavePlus to other fire behavior systems: FlamMap, FARSITE, WFDSS fire behavior applications, and FSPro.
  2. Understand the relationship of BEHAVE to BehavePlus.
  3. Explore the fire modeling capabilities of BehavePlus.

Downloads and Handouts: (ZIP 6.8 MB)

  • Lesson
  • Presentation
  • Paper (Andrews, 2013)

Date of Last Change: November 13, 2009

BehavePlus Update

Lesson Objectives:

  1. Review the status of BehavePlus version 6.0.
  2. List some of the changes from version 5 to version 6.
  3. Demonstrate how to obtain new training material.
  4. Demonstrate how to register for News.

Downloads and Handouts: (ZIP 1.2 MB)

  • Lesson
  • Presentation
  • Version Comparison through version 6

Date of Last Change: November 13, 2009

Before You Start with Fire Modeling

Lesson Objectives:

  1. Differentiate the relative roles of fire modeling results and user experience.
  2. Identify common pitfalls when modeling fire behavior.
  3. Identify the five major categories of fire behavior modeling inputs required in BehavePlus.

Downloads and Handouts: (ZIP 117 KB)

  • Lesson

Date of Last Change: July 13, 2011

Modeling Capabilities

Lesson Objectives:

  1. Explore the nine BehavePlus modules.
  2. Examine input options for each module.
  3. Identify the outputs available from each module.
  4. Discuss the five stand-alone tools available in BehavePlus.

Downloads and Handouts: (ZIP 3.5 MB)

  • Lesson

Date of Last Change: November 13, 2009

BehavePlus for Prescribed Fire

Lesson Objectives:

  1. Demonstrate the modeling capabilities of BehavePlus that can be applied to prescribed fire plans.
  2. Acknowledge the role of models and of experience.
  3. Recognize that the user is responsible for proper application of models with all of their limitations.
  4. See examples of the table shading option of BehavePlus which can be used to examine tradeoffs that lead to acceptable fire conditions.

Downloads and Handouts: (ZIP 2.7 MB)

  • Lesson
  • Presentation
  • Poster (8½" x 11"; Andrews, 2007c)

Date of Last Change: November 13, 2009

Introduction

  • The four lessons should be completed in order to develop basic skills in program operation.
  • The lessons in the Introduction Unit are most beneficial for new users. They are prerequisite lessons for the Operation, Modeling, and Applications Units.
  • The focus of this unit is on program operation and not on modeling concepts.
  • The lessons address button pushing, which is a small part of the BehavePlus skill set.
  • These four lessons can be used as pre-work for an instructor led course.

Download: Complete copy of the Introduction self-study lessons 1-4 with exercises and supporting material (ZIP; 5.3 MB). Individual lessons can be downloaded below. Lessons for version 5 are still available as a zip file (V5_ZIP; 6.2 MB).

 
1 - Basic Start

Lesson Objectives:

  1. Enter values in a Worksheet.
  2. View information available in the Help window.
  3. Calculate a Run to produce tables and graphs.
  4. Change inputs and produce new tables and graphs.
  5. Use BehavePlus to examine the effect of fuel model selection, fuel moisture, wind speed, and slope on surface fire rate of spread and flame length for a head fire.

Downloads and Handouts: (ZIP 819 KB)

  • Lesson
  • Exercise Answers

Date of Last Change: 26 December 2017

2 - Worksheets

Lesson Objectives:

  1. Explore the various options for changing a Worksheet.
  2. Save a Worksheet.
  3. Open a saved Worksheet.
  4. Develop a new Worksheet.

Downloads and Handouts: (ZIP 1.1 MB)

  • Lesson
  • Handout
  • Exercise Answers

Date of Last Change: 11 December 2017

3 - Input Methods

Lesson Objectives:

  1. Identify the various ways to enter inputs on a Worksheet.
  2. Save a Worksheet with inputs as a Run.

Downloads and Handouts: (ZIP 1.6 MB)

  • Lesson
  • Exercise Answers

Date of Last Change: 30 November 2017

4 - Calculations

Lesson Objectives:

  1. Produce results for single and multiple values for input variables.
  2. Understand differences in tables and graphs for continuous and discrete variables.
  3. Modify table and graph appearances through selection of row, column, and X-Axis variables.
  4. Change graph and table appearance.
  5. Change units for input and output variables.

Downloads and Handouts: (ZIP 1.8 MB)

  • Lesson
  • Exercise Answers

Date of Last Change: 11 December 2017

Operation

  • Lessons in the Operations Unit go into more detail than those in the Introduction Unit. They also cover additional features of BehavePlus.
  • Lessons can be done based on your needs and in any order.
  • When applicable, prerequisites are identified in each lesson.

Download: Complete copy of the self-study Operation lessons with exercises and supporting material (ZIP; this file will be made available once all of the updates to the lessons have been completed). Individual lessons can be downloaded below. See the Change Log for update information. Lessons for version 5 are still available as a zip file (V5_ZIP; 28.3 MB).

 
Help, More Help and Desperate for Help

Lesson Objectives:

  1. Explore the Features Paper.
  2. View the contents of the Variables Paper.
  3. Identify additional publications about components of the BehavePlus fire modeling system.
  4. Tour the BehavePlus help system.
  5. Find help on the website: www.frames.gov/behaveplus.

Downloads and Handouts: (ZIP 2.6 MB)

  • Lesson
  • Exercise Answers
  • Anderson, 1982
  • Rothermel, 1972
  • Rothermel and Rinehart, 1983
  • Rothermel, 1983
  • Scott & Burgan, 2005
  • Scott & Reinhardt, 2005

Date of Last Change: 12 December 2017

Features of BehavePlus

This could be used as an Overview Lesson.

Lesson Objectives:

  1. Explore the Features Paper.
  2. View the contents of the Variables Paper.
  3. Identify additional publications about components of the BehavePlus fire modeling system.
  4. Tour the BehavePlus Help system.
  5. Navigate the website: www.frames.gov/behaveplus

Downloads and Handouts: (ZIP 2.9 MB)

  • Lesson
  • Presentation

Date of Last Change: March 2, 2010

Worksheets (Advanced)

Prerequisite: Units and Decimals lesson

Lesson Objectives:

  1. Develop and save worksheets with changes in modules, options, units, decimal display, and appearance options.
  2. Define a worksheet as the startup worksheet.
  3. Open example worksheets that come with the program.

Downloads and Handouts: (ZIP 523 KB)

  • Lesson
  • Exercise Answers

Date of Last Change: November 13, 2009

BehavePlus Results in Written Reports

Lesson Objectives:

  1. Capture and insert portions of BehavePlus results into a Word document.
  2. Use the Description lines and Notes Section for documentation.
  3. Understand the importance of including the header on each BehavePlus page and of always attaching a complete list of inputs with the results.

Downloads and Handouts: (ZIP 476 KB)

  • Lesson
  • B+ in Reports

Date of Last Change: November 13, 2009

File Management

Lesson Objectives:

  1. Describe the BehavePlus file structure.
  2. Define the components of a workspace.
  3. Create a new workspace.
  4. Open an existing workspace.
  5. Create and save files in a new workspace: worksheet, run, fuel model, and moisture scenario.
  6. Use Microsoft Explorer® to move files within the BehavePlus file structure.

Downloads and Handouts: (ZIP 1.8 MB)

  • Lesson

Date of Last Change: November 13, 2009

Units and Decimals

Lesson Objectives:

  1. Switch between English and metric default units.
  2. Set the decimal display of input variables according to input values.
  3. Change units and decimals and save as a custom units set.
  4. Apply changes to the worksheet without saving a custom units set.
  5. Save a worksheet and run with custom units and decimals set.
  6. Use the Units converter Tool to convert individual values.
  7. Understand that the number of decimals displayed changes when the units set changes to avoid round-off problems.
  8. Use the fuel modeling worksheets for full display of fuel parameter variables.

Downloads and Handouts: (ZIP 1.9 MB)

  • Lesson
  • Exercise Answers

Date of Last Change: November 13, 2009



Table Shading for Acceptable Fire Conditions

Lesson Objectives:

  1. Apply the table shading option in BehavePlus.
  2. Define acceptable fire conditions within the program.
  3. Produce and interpret tables with crossed out and blank values.

Downloads and Handouts: (ZIP 667 KB)

  • Lesson
  • Exercise Answers

Date of Last Change: November 13, 2009

Export Results to Spreadsheet

Lesson Objectives:

  1. Export results as an HTML file.
  2. Open the HTML file as a spreadsheet for further analysis.
  3. Save the file as a spreadsheet.

Downloads and Handouts: (ZIP 953 KB)

  • Lesson
  • Exercise Answers

Date of Last Change: November 13, 2009

BehavePlus Tools

Lesson Objectives:

  1. Describe the six tools found in BehavePlus: Units Converter, Relative Humidity, Fine Dead Fuel Moisture, Slope from Map Measurements, Slope vs. Horizontal Map Distance, and Sun-Moon Calendar.
  2. Describe why outputs from tools are not integrated with BehavePlus worksheets.
  3. Demonstrate proficiency in exporting results from tools.
  4. Describe the assumptions and limitations associated with the Fine Dead Fuel Moisture tool.
  5. Describe the relationship between the Slope from Map Measurements tool and the SURFACE module of BehavePlus.

Downloads and Handouts: (ZIP 2.6 MB)

  • Lesson

Date of Last Change: February 16, 2011

Modeling

  • Lessons in the Modeling Unit address various modeling capabilities of BehavePlus.
  • Limitations and assumptions of the models are given.
  • Relationships of input values to results are shown.
  • These lessons assume that the trainee has skills with program operation.

Download: Complete copy of the self-study Modeling lessons with exercises and supporting material (ZIP; this file will be made available once all of the updates to the lessons have been completed). Individual lessons can be downloaded below. See the Change Log for update information. Lessons for version 5 are still available as a zip file (V5_ZIP; 24.7 MB).

 
Surface Fire Spread and Intensity

Lesson Objectives:

  1. List the assumptions and limitations of the Rothermel surface fire spread model.
  2. Describe the basic inputs for surface fire rate of spread and intensity.
  3. Practice calculations using the SURFACE module.

Downloads and Handouts: (ZIP 671 KB)

  • Lesson

Date of Last Change: November 13, 2009

Changing Directions: Surface Fire Spread

These five lessons describe all of the changes made to calculating surface fire spread in any direction that were made in version 6. The first lesson provides an overview of the changes and how to use them; the other four provide more detail on specific changes as needed.

Downloads and Handouts: (ZIP 3.5 MB)

  • 5 Lessons listed below

Date of Last Change: 6 February 2018

 


Surface Fire Spread Direction: Options and Definitions

This lesson provides an overview of all of the changes made in version 6 for calculating surface fire spread in any direction.

Lesson Objectives:

  1. List SURFACE options for wind and spread in any direction.
  2. Describe the effects of wind and slope on fire spread.
  3. Define heading, flanking, and backing fire spread.
  4. Distinguish between a point source and line source fire.
  5. Calculate surface fire behavior from an ignition point and from a fire perimeter.

 


Surface Fire Direction of Maximum Spread

This lesson describes the calculations for a heading fire only.

Lesson Objectives:

  1. Calculate heading fire behavior for a fire spreading upslope with wind-slope alignment.
  2. Find the direction of maximum spread for cross-slope wind.
  3. Compare input requirements for directions referenced from upslope and from north.
  4. Specify directions for fire with a slope of 0 percent (or, flat ground).

 


Heading, Flanking, and Backing Surface Fire Spread

This lesson describes the options to quickly calculate heading, flanking, or backing surface fire behavior.

Lesson Objectives:

  1. Define heading, flanking, and backing fire as used in BehavePlus.
  2. Calculate fire behavior and direction of spread for heading, flanking, and backing fire.
  3. Determine flanking fire behavior for a cross-slope wind.
  4. Use the SIZE module to find fire spread distance for heading, flanking and backing fire.

 


Fire Spread from Fire Perimeter

Fire spread from fire perimeter is the option used most often to calculate surface fire behavior. This lesson describes how to use these features.

Lesson Objectives:

  1. Calculate surface fire rate of spread and flame length from a fire perimeter in specified directions.
  2. Explain applications of modeling fire spread from fire perimeter.
  3. Describe how selecting directions from fire perimeter in the SURFACE module affect outputs from other modules.

 


Fire Spread from Ignition Point

Fire spread from an ignition point is useful when modeling an initiating fire or a spot fire away from the fire perimeter.

Lesson Objectives:

  1. Describe the difference between fire behavior from an ignition point and along a fire perimeter.
  2. Calculate surface fire behavior from an ignition point in a specified direction.
  3. Describe the effect of the revised flame length calculation on scorch height, transition to crown fire, and the fire characteristics chart.

 

 

 

 

Surface Fuel Overview

Introduction to the following seven surface fuel lessons

Lesson Objectives:

  1. Describe the methods of specifying fuel description for Rothermel’s surface fire spread model, which is in the SURFACE module.
  2. Describe standard fire behavior fuel models, custom fuel models, dynamic fuel models, two fuel model weighting options, and special case fuel models.

Downloads and Handouts: (ZIP 1.6 MB)

  • Lesson

Date of Last Change: November 13, 2009

Standard Fuel Models

Lesson Objectives:

  1. Identify the standard fuel models and their use.
  2. Describe the basics of dynamic fuel models.
  3. Compare many fuel models in one Run.

Downloads and Handouts: (ZIP 749 KB)

  • Lesson
  • Exercise Answers

Date of Last Change: November 13, 2009

Custom Fuel Models

Lesson Objectives:

  1. Use a previously saved custom fuel model.
  2. Change a standard fuel model and save it as a custom fuel model.
  3. Compare a new custom fuel model to an existing fuel model.

Downloads and Handouts: (ZIP 1.0 MB)

  • Lesson

Date of Last Change: November 13, 2009

Dynamic Fuel Models (Planned)

Lesson Objectives:

  1. Define 'dynamic' fuel models.
  2. Show the load transfer function.
  3. Describe the direct entry of curing level.

Downloads and Handouts:

Will be available at a future date.

Two Fuel Models

Lesson Objectives:

  1. Describe the proper application of weighting of two fuel models.
  2. Identify three methods of two fuel model weighting.

Downloads and Handouts: (ZIP 839 KB)

  • Lesson
  • Exercise Answers

Date of Last Change: August 9, 2011

Special Case Fuel Models — Palmetto-Gallberry (Planned)

Lesson Objectives:

  1. Identify the difference between a 'special case' fuel model and standard and custom fuel models.
  2. List input values for the P-G fuel model.
  3. Show output variables for the P-G model.

Downloads and Handouts:

Will be available at a future date.

Special Case Fuel Models — Western Aspen

Lesson Objectives:

  1. Identify the difference between a 'special case' fuel model and standard and custom fuel models.
  2. List input values for the western Aspen fuel model.
  3. Show output variables for the western Aspen model.
  4. Calculate aspen mortality.
  5. Contrast aspen curing level to curing level for dynamic fuel models.

Downloads and Handouts: (ZIP 1.4 MB)

  • Lesson
  • Exercise Answers

Date of Last Change: April 7, 2010

Fuel Moisture Overview

Lesson Objectives:

  1. Review basic concepts of dead and live fuel moisture in fire behavior modeling.
  2. Describe options for specifying fuel moisture for Rothermel’s surface fire spread model.
  3. Discuss the role of live fuel moisture in dynamic fuel models.
  4. Define characteristic fuel moisture and describe its role in modeling surface fire behavior.
  5. Analyze the role of dead and live moisture of extinction in modeling surface fire behavior.
  6. Examine the role of foliar moisture and surface fuel moisture in modeling crown fire behavior.
  7. Examine the role of fuel moisture in calculating probability of ignition.

Downloads and Handouts: (ZIP 1.5 MB)

  • Lesson

Date of Last Change: February 16, 2018

Dead Fuel Moisture

Lesson Objectives:

  1. Describe three options for inputting fuel moisture into the SURFACE module.
  2. Contrast the relative influence of 1-h, 10-h, and 100-h dead fuel moisture on surface fire behavior.
  3. Apply the dead and live fuel moisture input option.
  4. Estimate fine dead fuel moisture using tables from the Fireline Handbook as implemented as a BehavePlus tool.

Downloads and Handouts: (ZIP 2.2 MB)

  • Lesson
  • Exercise Answers

Date of Last Change: February 16, 2018

 

Live Fuel Moisture

Lesson Objectives:

  1. Describe the three options for inputting live fuel moisture into the SURFACE module.
  2. Evaluate the role of live fuel moisture in the surface fire spread model.
  3. Examine the effect of live herbaceous fuel moisture on dynamic fuel models.
  4. Compare the guidelines for live fuel moisture in Rothermel (1983) to curing level guidelines in Scott and Burgan (2005).

Downloads and Handouts: (ZIP 1.6 MB)

  • Lesson
  • Exercise Answers

Date of Last Change: February 16, 2018

 

Moisture Scenarios

Lesson Objectives:

  1. Define a Moisture Scenario.
  2. View the fuel moisture parameters of a Moisture Scenario.
  3. Describe application of Moisture Scenarios.
  4. Describe the Moisture Scenario sets that are available in BehavePlus.
  5. Use the Scott and Burgan (2005) Moisture Scenarios to compare standard fuel models.
  6. Develop and save a custom Moisture Scenario.
  7. Load and use a saved Moisture Scenario.

Downloads and Handouts: (ZIP 3.0 MB)

  • Lesson
  • Exercise Answers
  • Scott & Burgan, 2005

Date of Last Change: February 16, 2018

Slope

Lesson Objectives:

  1. Discuss the effect of slope on surface fire spread.
  2. Explain the relationship of slope to effective wind speed.
  3. Calculate slope steepness from map measurements.
  4. Calculate horizontal map distance from slope map distance, maximum slope steepness, and direction with respect to slope.
  5. Describe why slope steepness is not used in the calculation of crown fire behavior in BehavePlus.

Downloads and Handouts: (ZIP 2.6 MB)

  • Lesson
  • Exercise Answers

Date of Last Change: January 26, 2011

Wind Speed (Planned)

Lesson Objectives:

  1. Relate effect of wind on surface rate of spread.
  2. Compare 20-ft, 10-m, and midflame winds.
  3. Interpret maximum reliable wind speed.
  4. Examine variation of wind speed and gusts.

Downloads and Handouts:

Will be available at a future date.

Wind Adjustment Factor

Lesson Objectives:

  1. Distinguish the different methods of applying a Wind Adjustment Factor in a BehavePlus run.
  2. Examine how Wind Adjustment Factors are calculated.
  3. Identify the inputs required to calculate a Wind Adjustment Factor.

Downloads and Handouts: (ZIP 1.3 MB)

  • Lesson
  • Exercise Answers

Date of Last Change: May 28, 2010

Specifying Wind Directions

Lesson Objectives:

  1. Change input options for the wind direction.
  2. Compare the results of different direction option selections.
  3. Develop and save worksheets and runs for the two wind direction options.

Downloads and Handouts: (ZIP 776 KB)

  • Lesson

Date of Last Change: November 13, 2009

Overstory Vegetation (Planned)

Lesson Objectives:

  1. Show the variables that describe the overstory in BehavePlus.
  2. Describe the role of overstory variables in various modules.
  3. Compare stand vs. tree descriptions.
  4. Judge reality vs. models.

Downloads and Handouts:

Will be available at a future date.

Crown Fire Spread

Lesson Objectives:

  1. Understand how crown fire spread and transition from surface to crown fire is modeled in BehavePlus.
  2. Create a worksheet that produces a CROWN run to evaluate crown fire spread rate, area, and perimeter.
  3. Understand transition ratio, active ratio and their relationship to fire type (surface, torching, crowning, or conditional crown).
  4. Correctly interpret BehavePlus crown fire runs.

Downloads and Handouts: (ZIP 1.1 MB)

  • Lesson
  • Exercise Answers

Date of Last Change: August 12, 2011



Crown Fire Intensity

Lesson Objectives:

  1. Understand how crown fireline intensity and flame length are modeled in BehavePlus.
  2. Create a worksheet that produces a CROWN run to evaluate crown fire intensity and flame length.
  3. Understand power of the fire, power of the wind, and their relationship to wind-driven and plume-dominated fire.
  4. Correctly interpret BehavePlus crown fire runs.

Downloads and Handouts: (ZIP 852 KB)

  • Lesson
  • Exercise Answers

Date of Last Change: August 12, 2011

Scorch and Mortality

Lesson Objectives:

  1. Calculate scorch height from surface fire.
  2. Compare the role of wind in flame length calculation and in flame tilt as it affects scorch height.
  3. Describe the calculation of tree mortality from crown scorch.
  4. Demonstrate tree mortality calculations.
  5. Discuss the role of bark thickness.
  6. Discuss the updates to Version 5.0.

Downloads and Handouts: (ZIP 934 KB)

  • Lesson

Date of Last Change: April 7, 2010

Spotting and Ignition

Lesson Objectives:

  1. Calculate spotting distance from torching trees, a burning pile, and wind-driven surface fire.
  2. Calculate probability of ignition from a firebrand.
  3. Calculate probability of ignition from lightning.

Downloads and Handouts: (ZIP 1.7 MB)

  • Lesson
  • Exercise Answers

Date of Last Change: January 26, 2011

Size

Lesson Objectives:

  1. Describe the elliptical fire shape model.
  2. Define the inputs and outputs of SIZE as an independent module.
  3. Use outputs from SURFACE as inputs to SIZE (linked modules).
  4. Calculate the size and shape of a crown fire in the CROWN module.

Downloads and Handouts: (ZIP 743 KB)

  • Lesson

Date of Last Change: January 26, 2011

Contain

Lesson Objectives:

  1. Define the containment model assumptions and limitations.
  2. Describe the input and output variables for CONTAIN.
  3. Describe the input options for single or multiple resources.
  4. Use CONTAIN as an independent module.
  5. Use SURFACE and SIZE to model surface rate of spread and fire size at attack.

Downloads and Handouts: (ZIP 898 KB)

  • Lesson

Date of Last Change: July 13, 2011

Document Notes Download
Example Pre-work Instructions Example guidance to trainee who is asked to do pre-work for a course. To be edited by the course coordinator. DOC
Example Workshop Introduction Example introduction of workshop topics. To be edited by presenter. PPT
PDF
Example Course Agendas These are examples that include some lessons that are still under development. Check back for updates. Please send us your suggestions. DOC
Certificate of Completion There is no formal standard for acceptable completion of BehavePlus training. These certificates can be used at the discretion of the course manager (or, a self-study person can present it to her or himself.). PPT
Date Category Change
February 16, 2018 Lesson Updates and New Lessons Modeling > Fuel Moisture Overview, Dead Fuel Moisture, and Moisture Scenarios have been updated for version 6. Live Fuel Moisture has been created.
February 6, 2018 Lesson Updates and New Lessons Introduction > All four introduction lessons have been updated for version 6.
Operation > Help, More Help, and Desperate for Help has been updated for version 6.
Operation > Features of BehavePlus has been updated for version 6.
Modeling > Five directions lessons have been added describing changes to the SURFACE module in version 6.
Overview > BehavePlus Update lesson has been updated for version 6.

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