Fire modeling and information system technology play an important supporting role in fuel and fire management. Modeling is used to examine alternative fuel treatment options, project potential ecosystem changes, and assess risk to life and property. Models are also used to develop fire prescriptions, conduct prescribed fire operations, and predict fire behavior. Fire models and information systems have greatly influenced fuel assessment methods. As an example, we examine the evolution of technology used to put Rothermel's fire spread model into application. A review of fire and fuel modeling terminology is given, and the relationship between fire models and fuel models is explained. We review current fire modeling work and the influence that it will have on fuel characterization. Finally, we discuss opportunities and challenges involved in the use of advanced computers, the Internet, Geographic Information Systems (GIS), and remote sensing in fire and fuel management.