Climate plays a central role in shaping fire regimes over long time scales and in generating short-term weather that drives fire events. Recent research suggests that the increasing numbers of large and severe wildfires, lengthened wildfire seasons, and increased area burned are, in part, related to shifts in climate. The historical fire regimes in many ecosystems have been disrupted. Efforts to restore ecosystem structure and integrity are facing both a changed fuel load condition and a changing climate. The San Diego Declaration on Climate Change and Fire Management attempted to consolidate a variety of perspectives on climate change and wildland fire management into a common statement on the overriding need to prepare and plan for wildland fire regimes of the future. These changes will not only directly affect wildland fire events, but also require a more proactive management of fuels to reduce potential disruptions to plant communities, fire regimes, and ultimately, ecosystem processes and services. The effective management of landscapes may require novel targets for community structure and compositions, even if the specific objectives for fuels treatments may focus on measure of resilience then the restoration of presettlement conditions.