ANNOTATION: Forest residues utilization research has included case studies of the efficiency of existing harvesting systems in achieving close fiber utilization. Field evaluations included the use of in-woods chipping systems in gentle terrain; crawler skidder systems in gentle terrain; and skyline systems in steep terrain. In each situation, utilization standards ranged from conventional saw log utilization to near-total utilization of available fiber. Intensive utilization has been achieved concurrent with saw log harvesting, rather than through postharvest salvage. The total costs of harvesting merchantable material and residue together are partitioned to derive costs of residue recovery. Costs of recovery vary significantly among the case situations studied, and also vary with the method by which costs are allocated. Residue recovery costs commonly run $30-$60 per dry ton.