The National Fire and Fire Surrogate (FFS) study was implemented to investigate the ecological impacts of prescribed fire and mechanical operations to mimic fire in restoring the structure and function of forests typically maintained by frequent, low-intensity fires. Two of the 12 sites were located in oak-dominated forests, one in Ohio and another in North Carolina. This paper summarizes results from these two sites that have been published in peer-reviewed literature, covering fire history, fuels and fire behavior, entomology, soils and belowground processes, wildlife, and vegetation. We concluded that the FFS treatments did little harm to this ecosystem, benefit many ecosystem components, and promote oak and hickory regeneration. These effects could be transient, however, and need to be studied over the long term to determine sustainability of the ecosystem.