The results of this synthesis illustrate several important lessons. First, current forest structure is the result of decades of fire-suppression activities, and so restoration will require multiple treatments to bring forests to within the range of historic variation. Second, while the treatments discussed in this document generally increased native plant responses, the same treatments also increased exotic plant response. Therefore, to avoid spread of exotic plant species, it is important to consider the context of the treatment area, (e.g., nearby roads, wildland urban interface, previous exotic plant invasions) before applying the treatments. Third, applying thinning and prescribed burning treatments in a mosaic pattern of treatment time and type across the landscape will help to maintain a diversity of vegetation (e.g., early-, mid-, and late-successional species across the landscape).