Trends and transitions in the growing-season normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) satellite sensor at 250-m resolution were analyzed for the period from 2000 to 2018 to understand recent patterns of vegetation change in ecosystems of the Arctic National Wildlife Refuge (ANWR) in Alaska. Statistical analysis of changes in the NDVI time series was conducted using the breaks for additive seasonal and trend method (BFAST). This structural change analysis indicated that NDVI breakpoints and negative 18-yr trends in vegetation greenness over the years since 2000 could be explained in large part by the impacts of severe wildfires. At least one NDVI breakpoint was detected in around 20% of the MODIS pixels within both the Porcupine River and Coleen River basins of the study area. The vast majority of vegetation cover in the ANWR Brooks Range and coastal plain ecoregions was detected with no (positive or negative) growing-season NDVI trends since the year 2000. Results suggested that most negative NDVI anomalies in the 18-yr MODIS record have been associated with early spring thawing and elevated levels of surface moisture in low-elevation drainages of the northern ANWR ecoregions.