Significant changes occurring in the wildland fire environment of the United States are generatinguncharacteristic shifts in the complexity, behavior, extent, and effects of wildfires. Increases in wildfire numbers, temporal and spatial scales, and ecological, social, and economic impacts are happening across all land uses and jurisdictions. Treatment of wildland fuels to mitigate the risk of severe wildland fire impacts to human communities and valuable natural and cultural resources, and maintain and improve the health and resiliency of forest and rangeland ecosystems is emerging as a keystone land management process. With fuel treatment activities receiving greater attention and scrutiny, it is imperative to find ways to improve planning and implementation effectiveness. Science is increasingly important in advancing knowledge levels and facilitating opportunities to heighten management capabilities. Science can help identify and address critical research questions, encourage investigations to address those questions, and present and deliver new knowledge that informsdecisions of natural resource policy makers and land managers.