There are many thousands of acres in California that are either in need of post-fire reforestation or that are potential sites for forest restoration. A wide variety of practices is applied on the ground to achieve the goal of forest establishment. These practices vary in their effectiveness and costs. Accurate, science-based and experiential information is required to facilitate reforestation and afforestation. This information is required by land owners, land managers, professionals and agencies servicing and funding reforestation and afforestation. Educational programs and training focused on reforestation have diminished over the past several years with the notable exception of the annual Vegetation Management Conference. The benefits of reforestation and afforestation, commonly taken for granted, are important both locally and globally. New incentives created by carbon sequestration initiatives could stimulate an increased interest in reforestation and afforestation and an increased demand for both expertise and materials. At the present time, there are a number of issues affecting reforestation practices. These include a large backlog of land requiring treatment, wide variability in costs and limited availability of planting stock.