[from the text] Dead standing trees, known as snags, remain after various types of disturbances in forests. In addition to providing habitat for flora and fauna, snags are an important part of nutrient cycling and carbon sequestration processes. Knowing characteristics of snags from bench-mark or reference forests provides useful guidelines for those wishing to manage within the natural range of variability. Moreover, if so desired, forest managers can create snags with prescribed fire, girdling, and topping techniques. This study had two purposes: 1) to characterize the snag community of reference mixed-pine plots and compare them with altered plots and 2) characterize differences in snag progression using the techniques discussed above.