Following a prescribed fire, structural effects were measured over a 4-year postfire period. Initial tree mortality was concentrated in small diameter and height classes of Abies concolor (Gord. And Glend) Lindl., Pinus lambertiana Dougl., and Pinus ponderosa Dougl. Most mortality in all three species after the 1st year was associated with bark beetles. Mortality after 1 year for Abies concolor remained primarily in smaller tree classes, while both small and large pines were killed. Implications for restoring natural conditions in these ecosystems include recognizing structural as well as process goals, while reintroducing fire, and recognizing the significance of available prescription variables in the prediction of fire effects.