Fire spread and flame temperature were examined in a series of nine experimental crown fires conducted in the Northwest Territories, Canada. Detailed maps of fire front progression revealed areas with higher rates of spread in the order of tens of metres in horizontal dimension and tens of seconds in duration in several of the fires, which is consistent with the influence of coherent wind gusts. Comparison of open and in-stand wind speed before and after burning suggests that defoliation in the canopy layer during burning would result in the flaming zone having greater exposure to the ambient wind. Estimates of flame front residence from video observations at the surface averaged 34 s; estimates from temperature measurements decreased significantly with height from 74 s at the surface to 31 s below the canopy.
[This publication is referenced in the "Synthesis of knowledge of extreme fire behavior: volume I for fire managers" (Werth et al 2011).]