Document


Title

Numerical modelling of the aerial drop of firefighting agents by fixed-wing aircraft. Part II: model validation
Document Type: Journal Article
Author(s): J. H. Amorim
Publication Year: 2011

Cataloging Information

Keyword(s):
  • Aerial Drop Model
  • drop effectiveness
  • drop testing
  • Europe
  • fire retardants
  • fire suppression (aerial)
  • firefighting
  • France
  • model evaluation
  • statistical analysis
  • testing
Record Maintained By:
Record Last Modified: October 16, 2019
FRAMES Record Number: 49247
Tall Timbers Record Number: 25584
TTRS Location Status: In-file
TTRS Call Number: Journals - I
TTRS Abstract Status: Fair use, Okay, Reproduced by permission

This bibliographic record was either created or modified by the Tall Timbers Research Station and Land Conservancy and is provided without charge to promote research and education in Fire Ecology. The E.V. Komarek Fire Ecology Database is the intellectual property of the Tall Timbers Research Station and Land Conservancy.

Description

The validation of the Aerial Drop Model consisted of the comparison of computed ground patterns with experimental data from a set of real-scale drop tests using water and a wide range of fire retardant viscosities. Results were analyzed in terms of pattern length and area. A total of 78% of the computed line lengths per coverage level were within a 10% error, with an average normalized mean squared error of 0.01 and a Pearson correlation coefficient above 0.9. In all cases, nearly 90% of the results were within a factor of 2 of observations. The accuracy of the simulations showed no strong relation with the viscosity, although better results were obtained in the range from 700 to 1100 cP. In general, the model produced a good representation of the spatial distribution of the agent for various coverage levels and its accuracy was, in fact, within the statistical uncertainty of the cup-and-grid sampling method. The good performance obtained demonstrates that this tool, for the tested range of drop conditions, fulfills the requirements for use in the optimization of firefighting operations, as a complementary method to real-scale drop testing, and in firefighter training activities.

Online Link(s):
Citation:
Amorim, J.H. 2011. Numerical modelling of the aerial drop of firefighting agents by fixed-wing aircraft. Part II: Model validation. International Journal of Wildland Fire 20(3):394-406.