Numerical modelling of the aerial drop of firefighting agents by fixed-wing aircraft. Part II: model validation
Document Type: Journal Article
Author(s): J. H. Amorim
Publication Year: 2011

Cataloging Information

  • Aerial Drop Model
  • drop effectiveness
  • drop testing
  • Europe
  • fire retardants
  • fire suppression (aerial)
  • firefighting
  • France
  • model evaluation
  • statistical analysis
  • testing
Record Maintained By:
Record Last Modified: October 16, 2019
FRAMES Record Number: 49247
Tall Timbers Record Number: 25584
TTRS Location Status: In-file
TTRS Call Number: Journals - I
TTRS Abstract Status: Fair use, Okay, Reproduced by permission

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The validation of the Aerial Drop Model consisted of the comparison of computed ground patterns with experimental data from a set of real-scale drop tests using water and a wide range of fire retardant viscosities. Results were analyzed in terms of pattern length and area. A total of 78% of the computed line lengths per coverage level were within a 10% error, with an average normalized mean squared error of 0.01 and a Pearson correlation coefficient above 0.9. In all cases, nearly 90% of the results were within a factor of 2 of observations. The accuracy of the simulations showed no strong relation with the viscosity, although better results were obtained in the range from 700 to 1100 cP. In general, the model produced a good representation of the spatial distribution of the agent for various coverage levels and its accuracy was, in fact, within the statistical uncertainty of the cup-and-grid sampling method. The good performance obtained demonstrates that this tool, for the tested range of drop conditions, fulfills the requirements for use in the optimization of firefighting operations, as a complementary method to real-scale drop testing, and in firefighter training activities.

Online Link(s):
Amorim, J.H. 2011. Numerical modelling of the aerial drop of firefighting agents by fixed-wing aircraft. Part II: Model validation. International Journal of Wildland Fire 20(3):394-406.