Tree regeneration and understory response to selective cutting of Pterocarpus angolensis DC and Sterculia quinqueloba Sim, was measured outside Katavi National Park, Tanzania. Contrary to expectations, a selective harvest had no effect on tree recruitment for either species in this miombo woodland. In unlogged plots along transects taken at increasing distance from a main road, the stand densities of yound trees declined away from the road. Since anthropogenic activity along the road results in a high fire frequency but low native ungulate densities, the increased rate of tree regeneration near the road may result from either reduced grazing and browsing pressure by native ungulates, or reduced fire intensity and severity along roads. These effects appear to mask any possible effect of selective harvest on tree recruitment. Currently, there is no evidence of compensatory recruitment of trees of any species into the canopy to replace logged trees and this will lead to a gradual thinning in overstory stand density. © 2003 African Journal of Ecology.