Descriptions of spatial patterns are important components of forest ecosystems, providing insights into functions and processes, yet basic spatial relationships between forest structures and fuels remain largely unexplored. We used standardized omnidirectional semivariance modeling to examine the spatial pattern of fuels and forest structure measured in a systematic nested plot grid covering 144 ha. Forest structure variables were spatially dependent at scales ranging from 62 to 572 m. Cross-variograms of fuels and forest structure showed both positive and negative correlations, ranging from 0.04 to 0.67. Notably, fine fuels were correlated positively and negatively with forest structure variables of white fir (Abies concolor (Gord. & Glend.) Lindl. ex Hildebr.) and Jeffrey pine (Pinus jeffreyi Balf.), respectively. Old-growth Jeffrey pine-mixed conifer forest within the study area exhibited both identifiable spatial correlations and high stand-level spatial heterogeneity, as demonstrated by the influence of outliers on the underlying spatial pattern. The spatial dependency of fuels with species-specific variables suggests that less common species may have a large influence in the characterization of forest attributes and that fuel classifications may be improved by accounting for the spatial distributions of overstory species. Spatial correlations have many applications to forest management, including the classification and mapping of forest structure, establishing guidelines for fuel treatments, and restoration of old-growth forest ecosystems. © 2010 National Research Council of Canada, NCR Research Press. Abstract reproduced by permission.