Wildfires that spread into wildland-urban interface (WUI) communities present significant challenges on several fronts. In the United States, the WUI accounts for a significant portion of wildland fire suppression and wildland fuel treatment costs. Methods to reduce structure losses are focused on fuel treatments in either wildland fuels or residential fuels. There is a need for a well-characterized, systematic testing of these approaches across a range of community and structure types and fire conditions. Laboratory experiments, field measurements and fire behavior models can be used to better determine the exposure conditions faced by communities and structures. The outcome of such an effort would be proven fuel treatment techniques for wildland and residential fuels, risk assessment strategies, economic cost analysis models, and test methods with representative exposure conditions for fire-resistant building designs and materials.