The Endangered Species Act elevates the protection of rare taxa above most other management objectives on Federal lands. In determining the relative importance of rare taxa preservation to fire management goals, the manager is faced with a compromise, which can only be adequately addressed from an understanding of the fire adaptations of the rare plant and the fire regime under which that plant evolved. Such data are rarely available. Discusses the types of data that are available, the sources of this information, and plant adaptations to various fire regimes. Two specific examples, from Mesa Verde National Park and Buenos Aires National Wildlife Refuge are presented on how to use preliminary information on rare plant adaptations and wildfire regimes in fire management decisions.