The Fire and Fire Surrogates (FFS) network is composed of 12 forest sites that span the continental United States, all of which historically had frequent low-severity fire. The goal of the FFS study was to assess the efficacy of three management treatments (prescribed fire, mechanical thinning, and their combination) in reducing wildfire hazard and increasing ecosystem sustainability. This paper describes the impact of the FFS treatments on nitrogen (N) storage and distribution. At the network scale, total ecosystem N averaged 4480 kg·ha-1, with ~9% in vegetation, ~9% in forest floor, ~2% in deadwood, and ~80% in soil. The loss of vegetation N to fire averaged (±SE) 25 ± 11 kg·ha-1, whereas the mechanical and combined mechanical and fire treatments resulted in N losses of 133 ± 21 and 145 ± 19 kg·ha-1, respectively. Western coniferous forests lost more N from each treatment than did eastern forests. None of the manipulative FFS treatments impacted >10%-15% of total N of these ecosystems. Management strategies that maximize ecosystem carbon (C) gain by minimizing loss of N should be a focus in western forests, where C and N cycling are tightly linked, but perhaps not in those eastern forests where atmospheric N deposition has decoupled C and N cycles. © 2008 Narional Research Council of Canada, NCR Research Press. Abstract reproduced by permission.