In human-modified environments, high predation rates on ground-nesting birds and their eggs can be a serious problem. We reviewed the literature to determine the effectiveness of ecological aproaches to improve recruitment of ground-nesting birds. Ecological approaches reduce predation rates by modifying natural interactions among predators, prey, and their habitats. These approaches include modification of the predator community, associational defense, use of alternative prey, and habitat or landscape manipulation. These techniques can be applied successfully only under limited conditions and for a specific array of species. Because of this, no management practice is uniformly better than another to increase avian recruitment; different techniques are complementary rather than exclusive. Managers need to select the best technique(s) based on the predator community, local topography, size of the area, the avian species in need of protection, and economics. © The Wildlife Society, 2001. Abstract reproduced by permission.