From the text (p.6) ... 'Fire-as-tool suggests that the problem is to put fire in or take it out. The solution to unwanted fire is to shut off its air supply, remove its fuel, interrupt its chain of ignition. Fire-as-natural urges, if obliquely, that people erase themselves from their heritage as fire agents. By contrast, fire-as-biology suggests that the problem is to decide what fire's context should be, and then determine what kind of catalytic fire-induced jolt might best serve that setting. That fire is not merely a device to reduce fuel so much as combustibles are a means to get the kind of fire a biota requires. That our role as fire-keeper is more complex than that of tool-maker because it involves ecological connections as well as tasks. That fire, for humanity, is more than a problem or a process: it is a relationship. That fire, although no longer considered an element, remains elemental.'