Parasitism and haustorial structure of Schwalbea americana (Scrophulariaceae)
Document Type: Journal Article
Author(s): L. J. Musselman; W. F. Mann
Publication Year: 1977

Cataloging Information

  • fire dependent species
  • forest management
  • leaves
  • parasitic plants
  • plant growth
  • plant physiology
  • post fire recovery
  • savannas
  • Schwalbea americana
  • season of fire
  • seed germination
  • seeds
  • South Carolina
  • threatened and endangered species (plants)
  • wildfires
Record Maintained By:
Record Last Modified: June 1, 2018
FRAMES Record Number: 46403
Tall Timbers Record Number: 22131
TTRS Location Status: In-file
TTRS Call Number: Fire File
TTRS Abstract Status: Okay, Fair use, Reproduced by permission

This bibliographic record was either created or modified by the Tall Timbers Research Station and Land Conservancy and is provided without charge to promote research and education in Fire Ecology. The E.V. Komarek Fire Ecology Database is the intellectual property of the Tall Timbers Research Station and Land Conservancy.


Schwalbea americana is a very rare species of the Southeastern United States. Like most parasitic Scrophulariaceae, it is not host specific. Sixty-eight percent of the fresh seeds germinated without any host influence or pretreatment. In greenhouse studies, S. americana formed haustoria on four tree species including several that are not found in the savanna-habitat of the parasite. Glandular trichomes were present on the cotyledons and first- formed leaves; the simple hairs on the mature plant arise by loss of the glandular heads. The haustorium of Schwalbea is unique in the Scrophulariaceae in that a well-developed neck, interrupted zone, sclerotic layer, and a very broad endophyte are present. Tyloses, which arise from neighboring parenchyma cells and grow through pits in the vessels, are abundant in the neck region.

Musselman, L. J., and W. F. Mann. 1977. Parasitism and haustorial structure of Schwalbea americana (Scrophulariaceae). v. 53, no. 2, p. 309-315.