The history of quail management with comments on pen-rearing
Document Type: Conference Paper
Author(s): E. L. Kozicky
Editor(s): K. E. Church; Thomas V. Dailey
Publication Year: 1993

Cataloging Information

  • birds
  • Callipepla
  • Callipepla californica
  • Callipepla gambelii
  • Colinus
  • Colinus virginianus
  • fire dependent species
  • game birds
  • histories
  • history
  • hunting
  • Native Americans
  • pen-reared
  • private initiative
  • quail
  • social
  • wildlife habitat management
  • wildlife management
Record Maintained By:
Record Last Modified: June 1, 2018
FRAMES Record Number: 46363
Tall Timbers Record Number: 22080
TTRS Location Status: In-file
TTRS Call Number: QL 696 .G27 N37 1993
TTRS Abstract Status: Okay, Fair use, Reproduced by permission

This bibliographic record was either created or modified by the Tall Timbers Research Station and Land Conservancy and is provided without charge to promote research and education in Fire Ecology. The E.V. Komarek Fire Ecology Database is the intellectual property of the Tall Timbers Research Station and Land Conservancy.


Quail were present in the Lower Oligocene about 40 million years ago. The remains of northern bobwhite (Colinus virginianus) have been found in Indian middens in the eastern United States, but these birds were not considered a preferred food. However, California quail (Callipepla californica) were a choice food of Native Americans. Bobwhite are the most prized species by sportsmen, with the California quail in second place. There is evidence that northern bobwhite reached unprecedented numbers over large geographical areas, especially along their northern range in the mid-1800's. California and Gambel's quail (C. gambelii) were abundant in the mid- to late 1800's. From a social standpoint, the importance of northern bobwhite in promoting sportsmanship afield has never been fully appreciated. The bobwhite created a gentleman's way of life in the South that is steeped in socially accepted tradition which has been fostered and respected by sportsmen through the years. By its very nature, bobwhite hunting brings out the best in men and dogs. The eternal pursuit of perfection by man has made quail the hunting sport of choice by Americans. With ever-decreasing quail habitat and a growing human population, there is a great need to establish more quail habitat throughout the bird's range, and to produce pen-reared bobwhite that consistently emulate the sporting challenge of their wild cousins.

Kozicky, E. L. 1993. The history of quail management with comments on pen-rearing, in Church, K. E. and Dailey, T. V., Quail III: national quail symposium. Kansas City, MO. Kansas Department of Wildlife and Parks,Pratt, KS. p. 1-7,