From the Conclusion (p.402) ... 'Models provide the ability to simulate processes that occur at temporal and spatial scales that are difficult to empirically investigate. We have attempted to provide the framework of a set of nested models that can address multilevel boreal forest dynamics as land-use and climatic conditions shift. Scale has been highlighted as a challenging component of significant importance when considering interactions at the site, stand, or landscape scale within ecosystems. It has been our goal to present modeling as a valuable tool for analyzing boreal system responses to large-scale environmental change and subsequent feedbacks that connect terrestrial ecosystems and atmosphere composition.' © 2000 Springer-Verlag New York, Inc.