Pollen and charcoal from East Sooke Fen, Pixie Lake, and Whyac Lake were used to reconstruct the post-glacial vegetation, climate, and fire-disturbance history across a precipitation gradient on southern Vancouver Island, British Columbia. An open Pinus woodland covered the landscape in the early late-glacial interval. Fires were absent under a cool and dry climate. Closed mixed conifer forests of Pinus, Picea, Abies, Tsuga heterophylla (Raf.) Sarg., and Tsuga mertensiana (Bong.) Carriere replaced the Pinus biogeochron in the late late-glacial interval. Fires became more common even though climate was cool and moist. Open Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirb.) Franco forests expanded westward during the warm dry early Holocene, though closed Picea and Tsuga heterophylla forests grew in the wettest part of the area at Whyac Lake. Modern precipitation gradients likely originated at this time. Fires occurred in forested ecosystems, although East Sooke Fen at the driest end of the gradient experienced less fire. The middle and late Holocene was characterized by increasing precipitation and decreasing temperature, respectively. Quercus garryana Dougl. stands spread westward during the mid-Holocene. Extant closed Tsuga heterophylla and Cupressaccae (Thuja plicata Donn. ex D. Don) forests arose in the wetter part of the gradient, whereas Pseudotsuga forests occupied drier eastern areas. During this interval, fires were rare in wet western regions but apparently more common in dry eastern regions. © 2002 National Research Council of Canada, NDR Research Press. Abstract reproduced by permission.