Fire management, and forest and rangeland fuels management, over the past century have altered the wildland fire situation dramatically, thus also altering the institutional approach to how to deal with the changing landscape. Also, climate change, extended drought, increased insect and disease outbreaks, and invasions of exotic plant species have added complications to fire management on public and private lands. In an effort at a national campaign to deal with the overall issue of fire management, eight Federal and nongovernmental organizations met in Santa Fe, NM, for 4 days in May 2004 to explore cooperative efforts and alternative options. The "Managing the Unexpected Workshop" goal was to explore and possibly adopt the concepts of the "High Reliability Organization" to managing for unexpected fire events and plan for fire uses. This publication includes presentation material, discussion points, alternatives explored, and planning efforts.