Carbon dioxide balance of a tropical peat swamp forest in Kalimantan, Indonesia
Document Type: Journal Article
Author(s): Takashi Hirano; Hendrik Segah; Tsuyoshi Harada; Suwido H. Limin; Tania June; Ryuichi Hirata; Mitsuru Osaki
Publication Year: 2007

Cataloging Information

  • air temperature
  • carbon
  • carbon dioxide
  • CO2 balance
  • croplands
  • decomposition
  • deforestation
  • disturbance
  • drainage
  • drainage
  • drought
  • droughts
  • ecosystem dynamics
  • ENSO
  • ENSO
  • fire size
  • fires
  • flux measurement
  • forest management
  • Indonesia
  • Kalimantan
  • leaves
  • organic matter
  • peat
  • peat decomposition
  • peatlands
  • phenology
  • photosynthesis
  • precipitation
  • smoke effects
  • soil moisture
  • soil organic matter
  • soil temperature
  • Southeast Asia
  • tropical forests
  • tropical peat swamp forest
  • watershed management
  • wildfires
Record Maintained By:
Record Last Modified: April 8, 2019
FRAMES Record Number: 45771
Tall Timbers Record Number: 21354
TTRS Location Status: In-file
TTRS Call Number: Fire File
TTRS Abstract Status: Fair use, Okay, Reproduced by permission

This bibliographic record was either created or modified by the Tall Timbers Research Station and Land Conservancy and is provided without charge to promote research and education in Fire Ecology. The E.V. Komarek Fire Ecology Database is the intellectual property of the Tall Timbers Research Station and Land Conservancy.


Tropical peatlands, which coexist with swamp forests, have accumulated vast amounts of carbon as soil organic matter. Since the 1970s, however, deforestation and drainage have progressed on an enormous scale. In addition, El Nino and Southern Oscillation (ENSO) drought and large-scale fires, which grow larger under the drought condition, are accelerating peatland devastation. That devastation enhances decomposition of soil organic matter and increases the carbon release to the atmosphere as CO2. This phenomenon suggests that tropical peatlands have already become a large CO2 source, but related quantitative information is limited. Therefore, we evaluated the CO2 balance of a tropical peat swamp forest in Central Kalimantan, Indonesia, using 3 years of CO2 fluxes measured using the eddy covariance technique from 2002 through 2004. The forest was disturbed by drainage; consequently, groundwater level (GL) was reduced. The net ecosystem CO2 production (NEP) measurements showed seasonal variation, which was slightly positive or almost zero in the early dry season, and most-negative late in the dry season or early the rainy season. This seasonality is attributable to the seasonal pattern of climate, tree phenology and fires. Slightly positive NEP resulted from smaller ecosystem respiration (RE) and larger gross primary production (GPP) under conditions of high photosynthetic photon flux density (PPFD) and large leaf area index (LAI). The most-negative NEP resulted from smaller GPP and larger RE. The smaller GPP was related to high vapor pressure deficit (VPD), small LAI and low PPFD because of smoke from fires. The larger RE was related to low GL. Annual NEP values were estimated respectively as -602, -382 and -313 g C m-2 yr-1 for 2002, 2003 and 2004. These negative NEP values show that the tropical peat swamp forest, disturbed by drainage, functioned as a CO2 source. That source intensity was highest in 2002, an ENSO year, mainly because of low PPFD caused by dense smoke emitted from large fires. © 2007 The Authors. Journal compilation © 2007 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

Online Link(s):
Hirano, T., H. Segah, T. Harada, S. Limin, T. June, R. Hirata, and M. Osaki. 2007. Carbon dioxide balance of a tropical peat swamp forest in Kalimantan, Indonesia. Global Change Biology, v. 13, no. 2, p. 412-425. 10.1111/j.1365-2486.2006.01301.x.