Records of natural and cultural fires are scattered, difficult to obtain, and are of variable quality. We synthesize these disparate data for portions of southeastern North America from 1916 to 1990 for use by foresters, ecologists, and land managers. Dendrochronological studies provide data on local drought and fire scar frequencies. Historical accounts are rarely useful for frequency and extent information, but yield data on the role of fire in the pre-settlement landscape. General Land Office (GLO) records indicate pre-settlement vegetation patterns, but are of limited coverage and use in fire frequency estimations. These data indicate that fire is a key part of southeastern ecosystems, and fire fluctuates in extent, intensity, and frequency through time. © 2004, Tall Timbers Research, Inc.