Document


Title

'The air was fire': fire behavior at Peshtigo in 1871: What is extreme fire behavior?: Forgotten fire?: Was there a tornado?
Document Type: Journal Article
Author(s): H. Brown
Publication Year: 2004

Cataloging Information

Keyword(s):
  • Acer
  • air quality
  • air temperature
  • Arizona
  • bark
  • Betula
  • blowups
  • bogs
  • Canada
  • catastrophic fires
  • Colorado
  • combustion
  • coniferous forests
  • convection
  • crown fires
  • crown scorch
  • crowns
  • Cupressaceae
  • dead fuels
  • deciduous forests
  • droughts
  • duff
  • education
  • energy
  • evergreens
  • Fagus grandifolia
  • fire case histories
  • fire damage (property)
  • fire danger rating
  • fire exclusion
  • fire frequency
  • fire growth
  • fire injuries (humans)
  • fire intensity
  • fire management
  • fire sensitive plants
  • fire whirls
  • firebrands
  • firebreaks
  • firefighting personnel
  • flammability
  • forage
  • forest fragmentation
  • forest products
  • Fraxinus
  • fuel appraisal
  • fuel management
  • gases
  • heat
  • human caused fires
  • humidity
  • ignition
  • Illinois
  • leaves
  • lightning caused fires
  • logging
  • Maine
  • Michigan
  • mineral soils
  • Minnesota
  • mortality
  • mosaic
  • Nebraska
  • New Brunswick
  • New England
  • old growth forests
  • Ontario
  • overstory
  • Picea
  • Picea glauca
  • Picea mariana
  • Pinus banksiana
  • Pinus resinosa
  • Pinus strobus
  • precipitation
  • presettlement fires
  • public information
  • Quercus
  • radiation
  • rate of spread
  • rivers
  • season of fire
  • smoke behavior
  • smoke effects
  • snags
  • soils
  • spontaneous combustion
  • spot fires
  • stand characteristics
  • storms
  • surface fires
  • surface fuels
  • temperature
  • topography
  • Ulmus
  • understory vegetation
  • vortices
  • Washington
  • water
  • wilderness areas
  • wilderness fire management
  • wildfires
  • wind
  • Wisconsin
  • wood
  • woody fuels
Record Maintained By:
Record Last Modified: June 6, 2019
FRAMES Record Number: 42344
Tall Timbers Record Number: 17406
TTRS Location Status: In-file
TTRS Call Number: A13.32:64/4
TTRS Abstract Status: Fair use, Okay, Reproduced by permission

This bibliographic record was either created or modified by the Tall Timbers Research Station and Land Conservancy and is provided without charge to promote research and education in Fire Ecology. The E.V. Komarek Fire Ecology Database is the intellectual property of the Tall Timbers Research Station and Land Conservancy.

Description

From the text ... ''It will be a long time before those woods, more relentless than the waters, give up their dead.' -- C.E.Robinson, 1872 ...The drought was mild compared to the times leading up to other historically great fires in the Midwest. ...Surface fires scorched tree crowns and helped dry out the overstory, making canopy fuels available for burning. ...One lesson is that large fires produce volatile gases that are both lethal and unpredictable. ...'The flames ran upon the water as upon the ground; the air was filled with them, or rather the air was fire.' -- Father Peter Pernin -- ...Energy from low-level jets can contribute to rapid fire growth.'

Online Link(s):
Citation:
Brown, H. 2004. 'The air was fire': fire behavior at Peshtigo in 1871: What is extreme fire behavior?: Forgotten fire?: Was there a tornado? Fire Management Today, v. 64, no. 4, p. 20-30.