Ecotonal changes and altered tree spatial patterns in lower mixed-conifer forests, Grand Canyon National Park, Arizona, USA
Document Type: Journal Article
Author(s): J. N. Mast; J. J. Wolf
Publication Year: 2004

Cataloging Information

  • Abies concolor
  • Achillea millefolium
  • age classes
  • Amelanchier utahensis
  • Arizona
  • Berberis repens
  • biogeography
  • Bromus ciliatus
  • coniferous forests
  • dendrochronology
  • dendrochronology
  • distribution
  • disturbance
  • droughts
  • ecotone
  • ecotones
  • elevation
  • Eriogonum
  • fire dependent species
  • fire frequency
  • fire injuries (plants)
  • fire management
  • fire resistant plants
  • fire sensitive plants
  • fire suppression
  • forest management
  • Fragaria
  • Geranium
  • invasive species
  • light
  • lightning caused fires
  • Lupinus argenteus
  • mixed-conifer
  • mosaic
  • national parks
  • Netherlands
  • overstory
  • patch structure
  • Pinus ponderosa
  • plant growth
  • ponderosa pine
  • population density
  • Populus
  • Robinia
  • season of fire
  • size classes
  • spatial analysis
  • species diversity (plants)
  • statistical analysis
  • Verbena
  • white fir
  • wildfires
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Record Maintained By:
Record Last Modified: February 29, 2020
FRAMES Record Number: 41817
Tall Timbers Record Number: 16768
TTRS Location Status: In-file
TTRS Call Number: Fire File
TTRS Abstract Status: Fair use, Okay, Reproduced by permission

This bibliographic record was either created or modified by the Tall Timbers Research Station and Land Conservancy and is provided without charge to promote research and education in Fire Ecology. The E.V. Komarek Fire Ecology Database is the intellectual property of the Tall Timbers Research Station and Land Conservancy.

Annotated Bibliography

This document is part of the Southwest FireCLIME Annotated Bibliography, which includes published research related to the interactions between climate change, wildfire, and subsequent ecosystem effects in the southwestern U.S. The publications contained in the Bibliography have each been summarized to distill the outcomes as they pertain to fire and climate. Go to this document's record in the Southwest FireCLIME Annotated Bibliography.


This reseach analyzes patch development and determines tree spatial patterns along the lower mixed-conifer ecotone on the North Rim of Grand Canyon National Park in Arizona (U.S.A.). Patterns of patch development were interpreted from spatial analyses, based on tree age and size, and past records of disturbance and climate. Five plots in the ecotone between mixed conifer forests and monospecific stands of ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa) were studied for patterns of patch development. The methods used include: (1) size-structure analyses, to compare species patch development; (2) dendrochronological dating of tree establishment; (3) tree ring master chronology, to determine periods of suppressed growth, compared to a Palmer Drought Severity Index; and (4) spatial analyses by species composition, size and age, with univariate and bivariate analyses of spatial association and spatial autocorrelation. We found an increased density of shade-tolerant and fire-intolerant species namely clusters of pole-sized white fir, and fewer large ponderosa pine. © 2004 Kluwer Academic Publishers. Printed in the Netherlands.

Mast, J. N., and J. J. Wolf. 2004. Ecotonal changes and altered tree spatial patterns in lower mixed-conifer forests, Grand Canyon National Park, Arizona, USA. Landscape Ecology, v. 19, no. 2, p. 167-180.