Prescribed fire is the intentional use of fire to achieve certain land management goals. Over 2 million acres of forest land in the southern United States are treated with this tool each year. The benefits from these burns can be offset by a degradation of air quality due to the improper management of combustion products. This paper reports on a portion of the overall research program at the Southern Forest Fire Laboratory which is designed to provide smoke management guidelines to land management personnel. Included is a description of a method for determining particulate source strength emission factors for low-intensity prescribed fires. A limited amount of data regarding source strength, smoke concentration, and particulate size distribution for 9 natural environment prescribed fires is presented. Results are compared with previous data collected from fuel samples burned in the combustion room at the laboratory. Comparability was found between the concentrations of particulates determined while sampling side-by-side with the high-volume air sampler, the Andersen sampler, and open-faced 47 mm filters. Significant differences in particle size distributions were found between fuel types. Artificially produced fuel beds in the laboratory yielded lower particulate production rates than fires in undisturbed natural fuels in the forest. Particulate concentrations were found to be excessive near the fire, 60,000 Fg/m3 but decreased to less than 30,000 Fg/m3 10 feet away.