From the Conclusions...'Because smoke from fire can cause negative effects to public health and welfare, air quality protection regulations must be understood and followed by responsible fire managers. Likewise, air quality regulators need an understanding of how and when fire use decisions are made and should become involved in fire and smoke management planning processes, including the assessment of when and how alternatives to fire will be used. Many fire and air quality issues need further work including, definition of de minimis emission levels from fire, prescribed fire as BACM for wildfire, clarification of the difference between visibility impairment from fire vs. industrial sources, amounts of smoke from natural ecosystem burning that is acceptable to the public, and definition of natural visibility. Cooperation and collaboration between wildland fire managers and air quality regulators on these and other issues is of great importance. Table 4.1.2 contains recommendations for various types of cooperation by these two groups depending on the applicable air quality protection instrument.'