From the text ... 'The results of this study show that under certain conditions direct seeding can be a satisfactory method of establishing black spruce following prescribed burning of a balsam fir cutover. The most important limiting factor is the depth of the organic mantle. Satisfactory stocking was achieved only where the organic mantle was less than 3 inches deep...Seeding immediately after burning proved generally, but not conclusively, better than waiting 3 years after burning before seeding. Where herbaceous vegetation grew profusely, the delay was not beneficial. Reduction in the depth of the organic mantle between 1965 and 1968 was not sufficient to affect seeding success.'