The decade of the 1920s was somewhat of a paradox for range science. A. W. Sampson published 3 books that were widely used as text for higher education classes in range management. The United States Department of Agriculture. Forest Service expanded their mandate to manage grazing on National Forest and began to apply the principles of plant ecology and physiology that were being enumerated by range scientists. At the same time millions of acres of public domain outside the National Forest remained as free range and continued to decline in productivity. Progress was made in applying animal behavior technology to improve the uniformity of range forage utilization. This was especially apparent in regard to sheep and goats which were herded on rangelands. The management tools utilized were herding techniques, salt distribution and water developments. Restoration of range productivity and the place of wildfires in range ecosystems remained very controversial subjects. ©Society for Range Management. Abstract reproduced by permission.