Fire suppression costs on large fires: a review of the 1994 fire season [unpublished report]
Document Type: Book
Author(s): D. Truesdale
Publication Year: 1995

Cataloging Information

  • Arizona
  • burning intervals
  • coniferous forests
  • education
  • fire danger rating
  • fire hazard reduction
  • fire intensity
  • fire management
  • fire suppression
  • foam
  • forest management
  • fuel accumulation
  • fuel management
  • fuel types
  • hardwood forests
  • histories
  • Idaho
  • land management
  • land use planning
  • lightning caused fires
  • Montana
  • mountains
  • national forests
  • pine forests
  • pine hardwood forests
  • private lands
  • public information
  • rate of spread
  • recreation related fires
  • season of fire
  • spot fires
  • statistical analysis
  • US Forest Service
  • Washington
  • wilderness fire management
  • wildfires
  • wildlife
Record Maintained By:
Record Last Modified: August 1, 2018
FRAMES Record Number: 37677
Tall Timbers Record Number: 12188
TTRS Location Status: In-file
TTRS Call Number: Fire File (filed by title)
TTRS Abstract Status: Fair use, Okay, Reproduced by permission

This bibliographic record was either created or modified by the Tall Timbers Research Station and Land Conservancy and is provided without charge to promote research and education in Fire Ecology. The E.V. Komarek Fire Ecology Database is the intellectual property of the Tall Timbers Research Station and Land Conservancy.


'The rising cost of fire suppression activities prompted the Regional Fire Directors, under the leadership of the Director of Fire and Aviation Management, to review the causes of fire suppression costs and recommend appropriate actions. The 1994 fire season costs were the highest in Forest Service history and in October 1994 this report on Fire Suppression Costs on Large Fires was commissioned...[this] report is another in the series of reviews and reports following the 1994 fire season. Many of the Recommendations echo those in previous reports. Some will be resolved with final acceptance and action on the Federal Wildland Fire Management Policy and Program Review...The Director of Fire and Aviation Management will form an interagency team to review the recommendations and develop a consolidated action plan to determine the feasibility of accepting specific items from this report, the COURSE TO THE FUTURE: Positioning Fire and Aviation Management, and the Fire Economics Analysis Report (September 1, 1995).' From the text...'The 1994 emergency fire suppression costs are the highest in the history of the USDA Forest Service. Total expenditures in the Emergency Forest Service Fire Suppression (EFFS) appropriation were $757 million. Fire suppression costs have been increasing since 1977 by $17.4 million per year. Total cost for 1994 was of 174 percent higher (in nominal dollars) than the previous high of $435 million in 1988, the year of the Yellowstone fires ...This dramatic jump in annual cost was partly due to numerous individual fires with total costs in excess of $10 million. The 20 most expensive fires in 1994 cost more than $200 million. This fact alone would warrant a review of large fire costs, but 1994 was also marred by the fatalities of 34 fire personnel. This combination of events is the catalyst for numerous policy and activity reviews, including this review of fire suppression costs on large fires...... team traveled to national forests in the Western United States and conducted interviews with key fire management personnel. The forests range from central Washington to northern Montana and central Idaho and south to the Chiricahua Mountains in southeastern Arizona. The 1994 fires on these forests threatened towns, isolated communities, wildlife habitat, and thousands of acres of forest resources.'

Truesdale, D. 1995. Fire suppression costs on large fires: a review of the 1994 fire season [unpublished report]. [Washington, D.C.], USDA Forest Service, Fire and Aviation Management.