Woody species composition in uneven-aged stands of Pinus taeda and P. echinata as affected by prescribed fire and herbicides
Document Type: Conference Paper
Author(s): Michael D. Cain
Editor(s): D. H. Gjerstad
Publication Year: 1993

Cataloging Information

  • Acer rubrum
  • Alabama
  • Arkansas
  • Callicarpa americana
  • competition
  • Cornus florida
  • fire intensity
  • fire management
  • flame length
  • forest management
  • hardwood forests
  • hardwoods
  • herbicides
  • Liquidambar styraciflua
  • mosaic
  • pine forests
  • Pinus echinata
  • Pinus taeda
  • population density
  • post fire recovery
  • Quercus nigra
  • regeneration
  • sampling
  • Sassafras albidum
  • season of fire
  • seedlings
  • shortleaf pine
  • site treatments
  • species diversity (plants)
  • stand characteristics
  • understory vegetation
  • vegetation surveys
Record Maintained By:
Record Last Modified: November 21, 2018
FRAMES Record Number: 37598
Tall Timbers Record Number: 12088
TTRS Location Status: In-file
TTRS Call Number: Fire File
TTRS Abstract Status: Fair use, Okay, Reproduced by permission

This bibliographic record was either created or modified by the Tall Timbers Research Station and Land Conservancy and is provided without charge to promote research and education in Fire Ecology. The E.V. Komarek Fire Ecology Database is the intellectual property of the Tall Timbers Research Station and Land Conservancy.


Between 1980 and 1990, one of three operational techniques for controlling woody, nonpine competition was applied in each of three uneven-aged stands of loblolly and shortleaf pine (Pinus taeda L. and P. echinata Mill.). In one 12 ha stand, hardwoods >2.5 cm in dbh were stem-injected with Tordon® 101R during 1981. This stand was used as a check for comparing results from prescribed burning and broadcast herbicides. In a second 6 ha stand, prescribed winter burns were conducted in 1985, 1987, and 1989; hardwoods ù.25 cm in dbh were stem-injected with Tordon 101R during 1986. On a third area containing 30 ha, Velpar® L herbicide was dispersed from spotguns in a grid pattern during 1986, and Arsenal® AC herbicide was applied as a broadcast spray in 1989. In 1991, quadrat stocking of pine seedlings was 91% where broadcast herbicides were used, 35% with biennial prescribed burns, and 13% where no competition was controlled for 10 years. Prescribed burning and the use of broadcast herbicides resulted in from 4 to 60 times more stems of pine regeneration, respectively, compared to the check area, which averaged 692 stems ha-1 in 1991. At that time, density of sapling-size hardwoods averaged over 2,400 stems ha* on the check area, and that was 8 to 14 times more than sapling-hardwood density on the herbicide or burn areas, respectively. Species richness for dominant hardwoods of seedling size was as follows: check 21 species; prescribed burn = 18 species; and broadcast herbicide = 15 species.

Cain, M. D. 1993. Woody species composition in uneven-aged stands of Pinus taeda and P. echinata as affected by prescribed fire and herbicides, in Gjerstad, D. H., International Conference on Forest Vegetation Management: Ecology, Practice and Policy. Auburn, Alabama. Auburn University,Auburn, Alabama.Auburn University School of Forestry Report; 1993; No. 1.