The genesis of two Picea-Cladina forests in northern Sweden
Document Type: Journal Article
Author(s): Greger Hornberg; Lars Ostlund; Olle Zackrisson; Ingela Bergman
Publication Year: 1999

Cataloging Information

  • Abies spp.
  • age classes
  • archaeological sites
  • Betula pubescens
  • boreal forests
  • charcoal
  • Cladina
  • coniferous forests
  • cutting
  • dendrochronology
  • disturbance
  • Europe
  • fire intensity
  • fire management
  • forest management
  • grazing
  • histories
  • human caused fires
  • humus
  • lichens
  • mosaic
  • mosses
  • mountains
  • peatlands
  • Picea
  • Picea abies
  • Pinus
  • pollen
  • population ecology
  • shrubs
  • statistical analysis
  • Sweden
  • thinning
  • wildlife openings
  • International
Record Maintained By:
Record Last Modified: May 8, 2019
FRAMES Record Number: 37485
Tall Timbers Record Number: 11959
TTRS Location Status: In-file
TTRS Call Number: Journals-J
TTRS Abstract Status: Fair use, Okay, Reproduced by permission

This bibliographic record was either created or modified by the Tall Timbers Research Station and Land Conservancy and is provided without charge to promote research and education in Fire Ecology. The E.V. Komarek Fire Ecology Database is the intellectual property of the Tall Timbers Research Station and Land Conservancy.


1. In northern Fennoscandia a rare forest type, characterized by Cladina species and Picea abies, occurs on dry productive sites outside the range of permafrost but close to the Scandes mountains. 2. We determined the history of vegetation development and disturbance of two Picea-Cladina forests to test the hypothesis that this forest type has a natural origin. 3..We used a combination of several retrospective vegetation history and archaeological methods, i.e. the analysis of pollen, macroscopic charcoal, dendroecological data, written historical sources, maps and ancient remains. 4. The results suggest that the Picea-Cladina forests investigated are not the products of purely natural factors. 5. Under the influence of harsh climatic conditions and anthropogenic impact, mainly by repeated fires, grazing, trampling and probably also selective cutting of Pinus, mixed coniferous forests, dominated by feather mosses and dwarf shrubs, may have evolved into the Picea-Cladina type. 6. Repeated anthropogenic use of fire, already established c. 2000 years ago, may have been used to create lichen-dominated areas, initially to attract game but later to improve winter grazing resources for reindeer. This finding contradicts the general view that Saami nomads did not use fire to alter forest vegetation. © Blackwell Scientific. Abstract reproduced by permission.

Online Link(s):
Hornberg, G., L. Ostlund, O. Zackrisson, and I. Bergman. 1999. The genesis of two Picea-Cladina forests in northern Sweden. Journal of Ecology, v. 87, no. 5, p. 800-814.