From the text ...'This paper summarizes results of a study conducted under the aegis of the Interior Columbia Basin Ecosystem Management Project. We report on a midscale scientific assessment of vegetation change in terrestrial landscapes of the interior West, associated change in landscape vulnerability to fire, insect and pathogen disturbances, and management implications of those changes. Our assessment area included the interior Columbia River basin east of the crest of the Cascade Range and portions of the Klamath and Great Basins in Oregon (collectively, the basin). States included in the assessment area were eastern : Oregon and Washington, Idaho, western Montana and Wyoming, and northern California, Utah and Nevada (Figure 1). Our study had four objectives: (1) to characterize current structure and composition of a representative sample of forest and rangeland landscapes; (2) to compare existing conditions to the oldest historical vegetation conditions we could reconstruct at a comparable scale. This was done to better understand the direcction and magnitude of vegetation change occurring during the first century of active resource management; (3) to link historical and current vegetation spatial patterns with spatial patterns of vulnerability to insect and pathogen disturbances; and (4) to link historical and current landscape vegetation characteristics throughout the basin with fuel conditions, potential fire behavior and related smoke production. Our rationale was twofold: linkages in objectives 3 and 4 would enable us to better understand causal connections among historical management activities and current conditions, and they would assist us in evaluating current air quality and human health tradeoffs associated with wild and prescribed fires and tradeoffs associted with alternative insect and pathogen vulnerability scenarios.' From the 64th Transactions of the North American Wildlife and Natural Resources Conference. 1999; ©Wildlife Management Institute. Abstract reproduced by permission.