We examined pollination in natural populations of the rare Florida scrub endemic Dicerandra frutescens (Lamiaceae) to determine if pollinator specialization or poor pollinator service were factors in this species' restricted range and decline. Pollinators were observed in six populations in timed watches at various times of day, on plants of different sizes, and in different conditions. The bee fly Exprosopa fasciata (Diptera: Bombyliidae) made 95% of all visits, and an average flower received about 46 bee fly visits. Plants in more open sites, plants with more flowers, and sun-lit plants received significantly more visits. Bee-flies contact anthers in the morning, while stigmas bend up to receive pollen in the afternoon. The structure of D. frutescens flowers is specialized for large insects with long tongues. A system of concealed pollen and triggered pollen release may protect pollen from smaller insects and desiccation. Pollen deposition on the undersides of visiting insects suggests fly, rather than bee pollination. Related Dicerandra species with different pollinators have structurally different flowers. Based on the large numbers of visits and the observed movements of the bee fly, pollinator limitation appears unlikely, Furthermore, the bee fly is a common species that feeds on many plant species. Although Dicerandra frutescens is highly dependent on a single pollinator, it is unlikely that this has contributed to its rarity nor made it vulnerable to extinction. Instead, microhabitat specificity, habitat destruction, and fire-suppression are the major threats. © by the Florida Academy of Sciences, Inc. Abstract reproduced by permission.