Pollination ecology of the rare scrub mint Dicerandra frutescens (Lamiaceae)
Document Type: Journal
Author(s): M. Deyrup ; E. S. Menges
Publication Year: 1997

Cataloging Information

  • Archbold Biological Station
  • arthropods
  • Carya floridana
  • Dicerandra frutescens
  • Diptera
  • disturbance
  • fire dependent species
  • fire frequency
  • fire sensitive plants
  • fire suppression
  • Florida
  • flowering
  • insects
  • Lake Wales Ridge
  • lepidoptera
  • light
  • Lyonia ferruginea
  • microclimate
  • phenology
  • Pinus clausa
  • Pinus elliottii
  • pollen
  • pollination
  • Quercus chapmanii
  • Quercus geminata
  • Quercus myrtifolia
  • reproduction
  • sandhills
  • scrub
  • south Florida
  • threatened and endangered species (plants)
Record Maintained By:
Record Last Modified: June 1, 2018
FRAMES Record Number: 36908
Tall Timbers Record Number: 11332
TTRS Location Status: In-file
TTRS Call Number: Journals-F
TTRS Abstract Status: Okay, Fair use, Reproduced by permission

This bibliographic record was either created or modified by the Tall Timbers Research Station and Land Conservancy and is provided without charge to promote research and education in Fire Ecology. The E.V. Komarek Fire Ecology Database is the intellectual property of the Tall Timbers Research Station and Land Conservancy.


We examined pollination in natural populations of the rare Florida scrub endemic Dicerandra frutescens (Lamiaceae) to determine if pollinator specialization or poor pollinator service were factors in this species' restricted range and decline. Pollinators were observed in six populations in timed watches at various times of day, on plants of different sizes, and in different conditions. The bee fly Exprosopa fasciata (Diptera: Bombyliidae) made 95% of all visits, and an average flower received about 46 bee fly visits. Plants in more open sites, plants with more flowers, and sun-lit plants received significantly more visits. Bee-flies contact anthers in the morning, while stigmas bend up to receive pollen in the afternoon. The structure of D. frutescens flowers is specialized for large insects with long tongues. A system of concealed pollen and triggered pollen release may protect pollen from smaller insects and desiccation. Pollen deposition on the undersides of visiting insects suggests fly, rather than bee pollination. Related Dicerandra species with different pollinators have structurally different flowers. Based on the large numbers of visits and the observed movements of the bee fly, pollinator limitation appears unlikely, Furthermore, the bee fly is a common species that feeds on many plant species. Although Dicerandra frutescens is highly dependent on a single pollinator, it is unlikely that this has contributed to its rarity nor made it vulnerable to extinction. Instead, microhabitat specificity, habitat destruction, and fire-suppression are the major threats. © by the Florida Academy of Sciences, Inc. Abstract reproduced by permission.

Online Link(s):
Deyrup, M., and E. S. Menges. 1997. Pollination ecology of the rare scrub mint Dicerandra frutescens (Lamiaceae). Florida Scientist, v. 60, no. 3, p. 143-157.