From the Summary ... 'Prescribed surface fire in southern pine forests controls brown spot (Scirrhia acicola) of longleaf pine (Pinus palustris) and fusiform rust (Cronartium fusiforme) of southern pines. Rhizina root rot and many wood rots are favored by fire. Additional research is needed to determine the beneficial or detrimental effects of various types of forest fires on diseases, so that this information can be used in high-intensity tree production.A large crop acreage is burned annually to remove plant refuse, stimulate regrowth, or both, including cereals and rice, sugarcane, bermudagrass, other grass pastures, and lowbush blueberries. Some diseases and insects are controlled by this agricultural burning, but the main purpose is removal of crop debris. Postharvest burning of grass seed fields in the Pacific Northwest controls ergot, blind seed disease, seed nematode, silver top, and some insects and greatly increases yields. Mobile field incinerators under development show promise for application of needed thermal sanitation at the soil surface with minimal smoke and particulate matter discharge. These machines, perhaps supplemented with flame, may sanitize fields for crops previously not burned, using plant refuse as the main or only fuel. Improved open burning or incinerator-flamer treatment, plus new chemicals, should provide better disease control than has been possible previously.'